Environment Lab Report

3 what happens to milk as more lemon juice is added

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3. What happens to milk as more lemon juice is added? Explain your observation on the basis of the observed pH changes. The milk begins to spoil as more diluted lemon juice is added because the milk is becoming increasingly more acid and away from its natural pH state; its pH level is falling. 4. How does the soda-antacid relationship compare to the milk-lemon juice relationship? The soda-antacid relationship is basically a polar opposite of the milk-lemon juice relationship because it is increasing while the milk-lemon juice relationship is decreasing. Both appear to be reaching a plateau, however. 5. If some stomach upsets are caused by an excess of acid, why does chewing Rolaids tablets help to reduce the discomfort?
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The pH level of stomach acid is very low and sits at around 1.25. The addition of a Rolaids tablet would neutralize the stomach acid and relieve the stomach pains by causing the pH level in your stomach to rise to a more comfortable level. 6. How does a buffer work? A buffer has the ability to neutralize both an acid and a base by absorbing the effects of the pH changes and keeping the acid or base steady. 7. What are at least two examples of natural buffers? Natural buffers like lime in lakes help sustain life by keeping the natural state of the pH level in the lakes and protecting the pH level from changing by things like acid rain. Buffers also exist in milk, protecting it from bacteria that can decrease the pH level and cause the milk to sour. 8. What is the normal pH of blood in the human body, urine, saliva, and beer? The normal pH of blood in all of these things is 7.4. 9. During an autopsy, the Medical Examiner found that the deceased had died from a condition known as alkalosis. Alkalosis is a condition that occurs when the pH of the blood rises significantly above 7.45. Knowing that liquids in the stomach can pass into the bloodstream very quickly and knowing that the normal pH in a human stomach is between 1.5 and 3.5, the Medical Examiner examined the stomach and found the hydrogen ion (H + ) concentration to be 10 -12 moles/liter (0.000000000010 mole/liter). What was the pH of the stomach? Show all calculation. (Hint: pH=-log[H + ]) pH=-log[H + ] pH=-log[10 -12 ] pH=12
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10. At what pH do fish in lake ecosystems fail to reproduce? The reproduction of fish becomes adversely affected at a pH lower than 5.4.
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