exploration of the modern world’s obsession with speed. Seen through a woman’s nervous collapse, the film asks if we are headed for a burnout because of the very technology that was supposed to free us. Can time be made more human? Chapter Reading: Introduction to Sociology: Chapter OneIntroduction: •The major concern of sociology is to explain why members of some groups behave differently than members of other groups. •Social Factspoint to social or group-level explanations or behavior •They are shared and thus are unlike psychological factors, which emphasize individual, internal processes, such as drives and motives. •Note: Sociologists are concerned with rates of behavior Sociology: Its Modern Origins and Varieties •The French and Industrial Revolutions kindled sociology’s modern development •French Revolution: Expanded the potential for democracy •Industrial Revolution: Led to a new economy •These social changes were occurring, science and scientific explanation, products of the Enlightenment, were increasingly supplanting religion and theological explanations of natural phenomena •Auguste Comte saw sociology as both a religion and a science •Durkheim argued that society was based on consensus and cooperation •Karl Marx saw society as made up of individuals and groups held together by the strongest members
Functionalism•Three major concepts: function, equilibrium, and development •Function: Social arrangements exist because they somehow benefit society, and it points to the importance of each part of society for the functioning and health of the whole. •Equilibrium: Stability based on a balance among parts and consensus. A society will return to equilibrium after it adapts to minor problems (also called dysfunctions) •Development: Social change is seen as gradual and usually in the direction of both greater differentiation. Through time, society adapts to its problems and is improved in the process. Conflict Theory•Suggests power holds a society together, and that conflict is society’s natural state •The major source or social conflict is inequality, something that must be eradicated, not applauded •Society is viewed s composed of groups acting competitively rather than cooperatively •Conflict is society’s natural state and that it fuels social improvement •Marxism is a conflict perspective; Marx argued that contemporary society is held together by capitalist domination, in a constant struggle for the profit from labour. Only through revolution, can workers ever hope to change the capitalist-dominated structure of society. Symbolic Interactionism and the Micro Perspective •Both functionalists and conflict theorists tend to downplay the influence of individual actors in their analyses. •Each of us is born into a pre-existing society with its own way of life and into particular groups •Microsociologists, view individuals as active agents “People act from reasons not causes” •
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 6 pages?
- Fall '13