Alvin O. Thompson-Flight to Freedom African Runaways And Maroons in the Americas .pdf

# 9 fouchard 1972 365 moitt 2001 136 borrego pl? 1973

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9 . Fouchard ( 1972 , 365 ); Moitt ( 2001 , 136 ); Borrego Plá ( 1973 , 90 ); Pereira ( 1994 , 102 ); Bowser ( 1974 , 200 ); Gautier ( 1985 , 230 ); Karasch ( 1987 , 310 ). 10 . Quarles ( 1969 , 78 ) describes the Railroad as “a system of receiving, concealing, and forwarding fugitives”. 334 Notes to pages 84–105

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11 . See Hall ( 1992 , 124 38 ); Esteban Deive ( 1989 , 76 , 80 ); Gautier ( 1985 , 23 31 ); Romero Jaramillo ( 1997 , 171 ). Chapter 4 1 . See also Aguirre ( 1993 , 256 ). 2 . La Rosa Corzo ( 2003 , 21 , 73 ) makes the astounding statement that Maroon settle- ments in Cuba carried out only infrequent depredations against the plantations. However, he later demonstrates that this was not the case, especially in the first half of the nineteenth century when such depredations were common (ibid., 98 , 117 67 ). 3 . Since 125 of them were either deserters from the French or born to French deserters, although led by Santiago, a Maroon from the Spanish side of the border, it was agreed that the whole group should settle on the French side (Moreau de Saint- Méry 1979 , 140 ). 4 . According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary ( 1978 , 1190 ), a league varies in different countries but is usually estimated at about 3 miles. La Rosa Corzo ( 2003 , 262 ) states that the Spanish league is 2 . 63 miles. 5 . Borrego Plá ( 1973 , 26 ); Mathieu ( 1982 , 89 ); Arrázola ( 1967 , 56 , 57 ); Navarrete ( 2003 , 64 69 ). 6 . Information on the Suriname Maroons is taken largely from the following works: Beet ( 1984 ); De Groot ( 1975 ); and Hoogbergen ( 1985 , 1990 ). 7 . See Campbell ( 1990 , 27 ) for the main clauses of these Articles. Campbell (ibid., 26 ) refers to them as “the first formal declaration of war against any Maroon group in Jamaica”, and argues that the conflict that immediately preceded and succeeded the drafting of the articles should be viewed as the First Maroon War, rather than the wars of the 1730 s that are usually assigned that title. 8 . Dallas ( 1803 , 1 : 27 ). 9 . Patterson ( 1979 , 266 , 268 , 285 ); Campbell ( 1990 , 40 , 41 , 69 , 84 85 ). 10 . Reis ( 1993 , 43 44 ) mentions the break-up of a quilombo along the Prata River in Brazil after being devastated by a military expedition. There, an originally substantial group of at least three hundred people lost many of its members through deaths and capture in the assault, and the rest decided to form small bands of four or five people to attack Whites and their property. The Maroon group led by Balla in Dominica suffered a similar fate after a lethal attack on it (Atwood 1971 , 249 50 ). 11 . Porter ( 1932 , 323 passim); Blassingame ( 1979 , 211 ); Krogman ( 1934 , 421 23 ); Mulroy ( 1993 , 2 , 7 14 ). 12 . Porter ( 1951 , 260 64 ); Aptheker ( 1979 , 156 ); Blassingame ( 1979 , 211 12 ); Mulroy ( 1993 , 14 15 ). 335 Notes to pages 108–125
13 . See also Porter ( 1943 , 390 421 ). 14 . See also Aptheker ( 1979 , 162 ). 15 . See also Porter ( 1932 , 341 , 342 , 347 ). 16 . The Mexicans referred to the Seminole Maroons as Mascogos (Mulroy 1993 , 58 ). Many of the Seminole Indians eventually returned to the United States (ibid., 87 89 ). 17 . Esteban Deive ( 1989 , 47 ), a modern writer, estimates the population at that time at around 12 , 000 . 18 . A later, far more conservative figure put it at no more than two hundred (Debien 1979 , 109 ).

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