19 overview of the immune system innate immunity non

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19 Overview of the Immune System Innate Immunity (non-specific) – Barriers to infection – Inflammation – Phagocytosis Adaptive Immunity (specific) – Reaction to specific antigens • Parts of foreign proteins, sugars, chemicals – Body reacts to antigens when exposed • Retains “memory” of those antigens • Faster response if exposed a second time
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20 The Innate Immune Response This nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. - Barriers - Inflammation Chemokines eg interleukin, TNF - α - Phagocytosis Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils
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21 Barriers • Physical Barriers - Skin - Mucous membranes • Chemical barriers - Stomach = acid + digestive enzymes - Tears, saliva = lysozyme • Microbial barriers - Normal flora
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23 Innate Defenses: physical, chemical, and microbial barriers
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24 Inflammation Inflammation is a process by which the body’s white blood cells and chemicals protect us from infection and foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses . Complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as : - pathogens - damaged cells - irritants
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