- Red dye - Cherry/strawberry ice cream IRON OXIDE (E172): mineral ORCHIL/ORCEIN (E121): plant RIBOFLAVIN (E101): plant TITANIUM DIOXIDE (E171): mineral XANTHOPHYLL (E161): plant Synthetic Colours: Citrus Red #2 is restricted in Canada. Can be used in food, but under specific conditions. Yellow #5 (Tartrazine): only dye that normally must be indicated by name on the labels because some people are allergic to it. Red #2 (Amaranth): banned in the US, but allowed in Canada. Red #40 (Allura Red): allowed in both US and Canada. Red #3: investigated as potentially causing cancer. - Used to color maraschino cherries. Known as coal tar dyes because initially, they were extracted from coal tar. A chemical is classified as a human carcinogen if it causes cancer in test animals and when people who are exposed to the chemical exhibit a higher cancer rate. High dose animal studies may not reflect human exposure and risk. The presence of a chemical does not equate with the presence of risk. One must distinguish between hazard (toxicity) and risk.
There are more natural carcinogens than synthetic ones. Coffee is the number one source of antioxidants in the diet. A long life increases the chances of dying from cancer. In the 1970’s there have been conflicting studies linking synthetic food dyes to hyperactivity in children. A study was carried out involving the plastic water bottles. If the water is kept in the bottle for a long time, antimony would leach out into the water (600 ppt). At this concentration, how much water would an 80kg person have to drink in order to reach a potentially dangerous dose of antimony? 800 litres. How much water would a person have to drink in order to reach a potentially dangerous dose of water? 8 litres. Water Intoxication: potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions occurs when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is disturbed by over-consumption of water. This can be explained by osmosis. Concerns associated with cured meat; the use of nitrite for preservation. - Added for taste, colour Colour of fresh meat is reddish and due to presence of Myoglobin (iron plus 2). In the presence of oxygen, Mb will react to form oxymyoglobin which is a bright red colour. After a while, whether there is oxygen or not, Mb (Fe +2) will be oxidized to iron plus 3, the Mb will turn to a brownish colour, called deoxymyoglobin. In the presence of nitrite, Mb is converted to nitrosomyoglobin, which gives a pink reddish color. Nitrites get converted to nitrosamines in the body. Most nitrates we consume come from natural sources. Packaged hot-dogs often contain vitamin C combined with the nitrites. This is because the C blocks the conversion to nitrosamines. Oxygen: reacts with a number of foods. - Browning of fruits and veggies - Oxidation of fats (rancidity) Anti-Oxidants can prevent these two effects. Cut apple in two, partly with a knife and partly with hands. The part where the knife touched the apple becomes brown more quickly because the metal enhances the reaction.
Additives such as citric acid and calcium disodium EDTA prevent browning in fruits because they have a chemical structure that enables them to “tie up” or chelate the metal ions that cause browning in the fruit.
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- Spring '11
- pH, Food coloring, Food additive