All land taken from catholics returned 1629 1635

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All land taken from Catholics returned 1629-1635 Swedish Phase Sweden vs HRE Gustavus Adolphus beats Albrecht of Wallenstein Peace of Prague 1635 Adds Calvinism to Peace of Augsburg People can freely worship Calvinism HRE loses 1635-1648 French/International Phase Cardinal Richelieu unsatisfied w/ Peace of Prague France vs HRE + Spain HRE loses 1648 Peace of Westphalia Ends Thirty Years War Splits HRE into 300 pieces (France foreign policy to keep HRE weak) Suggested by Cardinal Richelieu Splits Netherlands in two 1610-1643 Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1642) Was appointed by Marie de’ Medici as an advisor Louis XIII’s mom and second wife of Henry IV Policies: Foreign policy was to keep France ↑ and HRE ↓ Domestic policy was to keep monarchy ↑ and nobility ↓ Politique - State before religion Crack down on Huguenots Peace of Alais changed terms of Edict of Nantes Not allowed to fortify towns but still allowed to practice religion Restructured nobility Replaced Nobility of Sword with Robe Nobility of Sword - traditional nobles who threatened monarchy Nobility of Robe - new nobility loyal to King 1648-1653 Fronde - Civil war between Nobility of Sword and Robe Traumatized 10 year old Louis XIV Intendant System People hired to enforce and watch 32 districts of France Made up the bureaucracy In return for power, bureaucrats supported king Carry out the rule and law of the monarchy Strengthened power of the king Divine Right of Kings
Believed that monarch only answerable to God 1625-1649 Reign of Charles I of England Problems in Scotland Archbishop William Laud (1635) Tried to force Anglicanism on Scottish people who were Presbyterian Calvinist Scottish people revolt violently Charles needs money for war in Scotland Short Parliament Calls Parliament for money Parliament led by John Pym had too many conditions for Charles after 11 years so he dismisses them after 3 weeks Charles uses army he has, but defeated at the Battle of Newburn Charles calls Parliament for money again Long Parliament Great Remonstrance - a list of grievances by Parliament which is accepted for a year Charles sends soldiers to arrest Parliament Begins English Civil War 1628 Petition of Right Limited power of monarch Writ of Habeas Corpus Innocent until proven guilty No one should be imprisoned without due processes of law 1629-1640 Parliament dismissed by Charles I Repeals Petition of Right Rules on his own Needs money since Parliament controls money Ship Money Tax Coastal people had to supply government with one ship every year or so for the navy Changed so that both coastal and inland people had to pay money instead 1642-1651 English Civil War King vs Parliament (Cavaliers vs. Roundheads)

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