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Unformatted text preview: 6. misplacing htings misplacing htings 7. 7. rapid mood changes (worse early in disease) rapid mood changes (worse early in disease) (Adapted from the Alzheimer's Association ) (Adapted from the Alzheimer's Association ) Functional Assessment Staging Test Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) (FAST) for DAT for DAT Risk Factors for DAT Risk Factors for DAT Increasing age Being female History of head injury Having heart disease, stroke, or hypertension, especially with high levels of homocysteine , an amino acid associated with infection and inflammation Periodontal disease before age 35 Genetics / family history – BIG determinant – Concordance of MZ twins: 40-60 % – Some families have mutated genes on chromosomes 1 or 14 which cause 80% of all early-onset DAT – A gene on chromosome 19 that codes for the protein ApoE (apolipoprotein E) may be responsible for many cases of late-onset DAT; ApoE is involved in formation of amyloid plaques – Cherokee Indians may be immune to DAT – Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21): Almost all Down’s individuals who reach 40-50 will have DAT – Perhaps many cases of DAT are Trisomy 21 mosaicism. Possible: – Small head circumference – Simplistic early writing (Nun study) Nun Study: Nun Study: 678 School Sisters of Notre Dame 678 School Sisters of Notre Dame Mankato, Minnesota Mankato, Minnesota Sisters in the Nun Study Sisters in the Nun Study Live very homogeneous lifestyles (no smoking, very little alcohol, similar diets) Are mostly teachers (85%) Agree to annual – assessment of cognitive and physical function – medical exams – blood tests Consent to having their brains autopsied at death Preliminary Results of Nun Study Preliminary Results of Nun Study (Over 90% of Sisters Released Their Brains for Autopsy) (Over 90% of Sisters Released Their Brains for Autopsy) Lower rates of Alzheimer’s Disease are predicted by: Higher level of early education Higher “idea density” in early autobiographical writings (predicted Alzheimer’s 60 years later with 80-95% accuracy) Greater number of words expressing positive emotions Fewer strokes Idea Densities in Writing Idea Densities in Writing ( A ) "I attended the public school until the fifth grade....
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- Spring '10
- nun study, severe dat, Alzheimer’s Type