b Proportional to surface area and volume c Membrane of cell is the surface

B proportional to surface area and volume c membrane

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b.Proportional to surface area and volume.c.Membrane of cell is the surface area- larger the cell or volume or organism – the volume increase faster than the surface area i.Look at graph d.As biger – surface to volume ratio goes down e.Single- celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membraneto service its entire volume of cytoplasm i.Has plenty of surface area f.Cnidarians - sac like body only two cells thick i.For the hydra- simple body plan (inside doing digestions, outside doing exchange) ii.Share with each other and it works g.Flat animals- i.Bc only few layers of cells thick and flat – does well – plenty of surface relative to volume ii.Beyond this – roundworm etc- have more problems with surface to volumeh.Folded internal Surfaces in larger animals i.Gills- exchange of oxygen 1.Lots of layers of folded flat tissue 2.Huge amount of surface area hidden thereii.Intestine – help absorb more nutrients – fold, villi, and microvilliiii.Circulatory system – capillaries- narrow and highly branched 6.Tissues are classified into four main categoriesa.Connective, epithelial , muscle, nervous i.Sponges are the only animals that don’t have these types b.Cell to tissue to organ to organ system c.In villi – have all four types of tissue – small intestine organ 7.Nervous tissue- senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
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a.Dendrites pick up info, axon sends to next neuron 8.Muscle tissue- a.Skeletal, cardiac, smooth b.Skeletal is big motionsc.Cardiac is special for heart- more branched, less symmetrical , involuntary d.Smooth muscles- involuntary movement – digestive system and blood vessels 9.Connective tissuei.LCT, DCT (stronger and more stylized), supporting (bone, cartilage), fluid (blood)ii.Anything supported in a matrix? Missed thisb.Connective tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues.c.It contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix.d.The matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation.e.There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein:i.Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility.1.tendonii.Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length.1.Skiniii.Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues.1.Spread out10. Epithelial tissue a.Epithelial Tissuei.cover the outside of the body.1.Not a simple structure – dermis, connective tissue etcii.line the inner surfaces of many organs.1.Cover iii.form glands.1.Apical sideb.Two major types: i.Simple.ii.Stratified- more protectivec.examples of tissues: named for the shapes of the cells and whether they are simple or stratified i.simple cuboidal, pseudostrat, blue layer – basement membrane, where cells are attached and it creates strength ii.stratified based on what they do 8-28-191.The Evolution History of Plants a.Left orange picb.Take a look at land plants in the eukaryotes c.Orange are all protists , three major kingdoms come out of the protists (fungi, animals, land plants d.Land plants relationship to algae has changed over time
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