August 1 1894 China and Korea declare war to each other Sep 1894 x Japan

August 1 1894 china and korea declare war to each

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August 1, 1894, China and Korea declare war to each other Sep 1894: x Japan overwhelms the Chinese at P’yongyang x Japan wins decisive naval battle at Yalu River Nov 1894: Japan seized Port Arthur Feb 1895: Japan destroyed Chinese fleet at Weihaiwei N ot all of China’s fleet was mobilized some provincial squadrons remained ‘neutral’ for self - preservation China’s fleet was old, slow and poorly led and supplied ¾ Treaty of Shimonoseki Heavy indemnity China was to recognize Korea as an independent country Formosa and the Pescadore Islands were given to Japan. Japan was also given sovereignty in the Liaotung Peninsula China signed a commercial treaty with Japan similar to those China had signed with Western powers Li Hongzhang subject to severe criticism and dismissed Show the failure of self-strenghten movement ¾ Reasons for China’s defeat Japan had become a modern nation state with a national consciousness There was no such consciousness in China, the state and the people formed separate entities No demarcation of authority in China; Li Hongzhang could control diplomatic and military affairs in Korea, but not in China Corruption at court: empress Dowager’s use of funds for the Summer Palace;; trust in eunuchs Li Hongzhang’s ine fficiency in international relations
¾ 1894: Anglo-Japanese Commercial treaty Ends unequal treaties between Britain and Japan Ends British extraterritoriality in Japan ¾ 1902: the Anglo-Japanese alliance ¾ Britain does not want to see Russia get too powerful in China ¾ Japan realizes it needs international power ¾ 1902: the Anglo-Japanese alliance Each nation recognize each other’s privilege Britain recognizes Japan’s ‘special interest’ in Korea Agrees to support each in case of a Russian attack ¾ 1897: tariff autonomy recognized by other Western powers ¾ 1911: equalization of all relations with Western powers ¾ The triple intervention 1895 Russian, French and Germans ‘advice’ Japan to return the Liaodong Peninsula France: Franco-Russian Alliance (1892-1917) Germany: wants a port of China ‘the Yellow Peril’ Russian Trans-Siberian Railway May 5, 1895: Japan informs the 3 powers that the Liaodong Peninsula would be restored to China Japan gets an increase in their indemnity from China All Japanese troops withdrew from the peninsula by December 1895 1896: Russia demands the right to construct the Chinese Eastern Railway from Lake Baikal to Vladivostok ¾ Japan and Russia discuss their common interest in northern Asia ¾ Russian promised to withdraw all troops from Manchuria but are slow to do and Tonghak religion ¾ Founded by Ch’oe Cheu ¾ Ch’oe Sihyong Tonghak rebellion ¾ Started in Feb 1894 ¾ As the first step to the loss of national independence by Joseon
¾ Made a significant contribution to Korean modernization Son Pyonghui March 1 st movement ¾ A major change in imperial policy towards Korea ¾ A catalyst for the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai in April 1919 ¾

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