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August 1, 1894, China and Korea declare war to each other Sep 1894: xJapan overwhelms the Chinese at P’yongyangxJapan wins decisive naval battle at Yalu River Nov 1894: Japan seized Port Arthur Feb 1895: Japan destroyed Chinese fleet at Weihaiwei Not all of China’s fleet was mobilized some provincial squadrons remained ‘neutral’ for self-preservation China’s fleet was old, slow and poorly led and supplied¾Treaty of Shimonoseki Heavy indemnity China was to recognize Korea as an independent country Formosa and the Pescadore Islands were given to Japan. Japan was also given sovereignty in the Liaotung Peninsula China signed a commercial treaty with Japan similar to those China had signed with Western powers Li Hongzhang subject to severe criticism and dismissed Show the failure of self-strenghten movement ¾Reasons for China’s defeatJapan had become a modern nation state with a national consciousness There was no such consciousness in China, the state and the people formed separate entities No demarcation of authority in China; Li Hongzhang could control diplomatic and military affairs in Korea, but not in China Corruption at court: empress Dowager’s use of funds for the Summer Palace;; trust in eunuchsLi Hongzhang’s inefficiency in international relations
¾1894: Anglo-Japanese Commercial treaty Ends unequal treaties between Britain and Japan Ends British extraterritoriality in Japan ¾1902: the Anglo-Japanese alliance ¾Britain does not want to see Russia get too powerful in China ¾Japan realizes it needs international power ¾1902: the Anglo-Japanese alliance Each nation recognize each other’s privilegeBritain recognizes Japan’s ‘special interest’ in KoreaAgrees to support each in case of a Russian attack ¾1897: tariff autonomy recognized by other Western powers ¾1911: equalization of all relations with Western powers ¾The triple intervention 1895 Russian, French and Germans ‘advice’ Japan to return the Liaodong PeninsulaFrance: Franco-Russian Alliance (1892-1917) Germany: wants a port of China ‘the Yellow Peril’Russian Trans-Siberian Railway May 5, 1895: Japan informs the 3 powers that the Liaodong Peninsula would be restored to China Japan gets an increase in their indemnity from China All Japanese troops withdrew from the peninsula by December 1895 1896: Russia demands the right to construct the Chinese Eastern Railway from Lake Baikal to Vladivostok ¾Japan and Russia discuss their common interest in northern Asia ¾Russian promised to withdraw all troops from Manchuria but are slow to do and Tonghak religion ¾Founded by Ch’oe Cheu¾Ch’oe SihyongTonghak rebellion ¾Started in Feb 1894 ¾As the first step to the loss of national independence by Joseon
¾Made a significant contribution to Korean modernization Son Pyonghui March 1stmovement ¾A major change in imperial policy towards Korea ¾A catalyst for the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai in April 1919 ¾