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Environment Homework #3

In a tropical seasonal forest however the amount of

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quantity of rain all year round. In a tropical seasonal forest, however, the amount of rain per year diminishes, and months with little or no rain become more common. In essence, a tropical seasonal forest is a rain forest with less rain. A tropical savanna, moreover, is when rainfall is even more seasonal and droughts are far more common and can even last almost half a year. Tropical savannas are often less like a forest and more like grasslands. In Central America, it would be assumed that the eastern slopes of the mountains get much more precipitation than the eastern slopes, making the western slopes a tropical rain forest while the eastern are tropical seasonal forests and savannas. 5) Section 10.4 Question #2: Even though precipitation is low, boreal forest and tundra are often wet and boglike. Why? Since a tundra receives less precipitation than a desert normally does on an annual basis, it would be assumed that a tundra is very dry. On the contrary, however, both tundras and boreal forests are very moist and boglike. While they receive very little precipitation, the precipitation they do receive is often well kempt in the soil because of low evaporation associated with the cold weather and climates in these polar biomes. Chapter 12
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1) Section 12.1 Question #2: How do hydrologists typically estimate evapotranspiration for a watershed? When water falls to the earth through the precipitation forms of water, snow, or hail, it has three fates. The water is either evaporated back into the atmosphere, flowed over land in streams or rivers, or embedded into underground aquifers. Almost two-thirds of this water is eventually evaporated back into the atmosphere from land surfaces or plant leaves; this process is known as evapotranspiration. In order to estimate the amount of evapotranspiration in a watershed, the area of land from which rainfall drains into a river or lake, hydrologists can either measure the evapotranspiration directly or by subtracting stream and groundwater flow from rainfall. 2) Section 12.2 Question #3: Describe how a dam affects the amount of sediment carried by the streams flowing above and below the dam. When streams flow into lakes, they often carry large amounts of sediment with them. These sediments often come from things such as erosion. While the sediments are not a huge problem, they do cause lakes to fill rather quicker and with less water, which can be an issue. When a stream flows through a dam, however, they carry very little sediment. This means that the streams flowing under or above dams cannot replace the sediments lost in the natural erosion occurring on stream banks below the dam, and because of this, lakes will not fill up with sediment as fast as they normally would.
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3) Section 12.3 Question #1: Why is the salt content generally high in closed basin lakes?
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