Defense mechanisms are said to be unconscious. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Periods of Development: sexual focus, implications for adult personality, fixation. Oral: birth to 1.5 years. Gratification is centered around the mouth for the ID (e.g., breast- feeding, sucking, biting). Unconscious sexual pleasure. Anal: 1.5 to 3 years. Gratification is centered around the pleasure of defecation; toilet-training is issue for resolution. Phallic: 3-6. Gratification manifests itself through genitals; resolution for development lies in identification with same-sex parents. Oedipus Complex: boys have unconscious jealous love for mother and desire to kill the father. Resolved by identification with father and internalization of father’s values. Electra Complex: girls discover that they do not have a penis and desire one (“penis envy”); jealous of mother for father. Identification with mother results. Fixation: defense mechanism where a person continues to be concerned and even preoccupied with an earlier stage of development.
Little Hans: wanted to drown his little sister to get the attention of his mother, dreams about his mother wiping his butt, his fear of horses was his fear of his father, he pretended that his family had no father and needed one (him). Latency: 6 to puberty. Sexual urges are repressed and transformed into socially acceptable activities, such as schoolwork and peer activities. Genital: puberty to adulthood. Successful resolution and development into a mature sexual relationship. CRITICISMS OF FREUDIAN THEORY Based upon case studies (recollections of adult patients). Focused on the male view, “his” interpretations. Concepts are difficult to operationally define, making the approach untestable. Too sexualized. However: Freud’s Theory: first comprehensive theory of personality: every personality theory since can be seen as a reaction to Freud. Sparked psychoanalysis (many still believe that psychoanalysis is the best treatment for mental illness. Defensive mechanisms, large role for unconscious. Mental representations (self and others do indeed serve as blueprints or schemas to guide our behaviour, called objects- relations theory , reflecting the mental images of significant figures (objects). ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS Projective Tests: Ambiguous Stimuli: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): personality revealed through the stories created. Rorschach Inkblot: see meaning in pictures. NEO-FREUDIANS Alfred Adler: importance of childhood social tension. Inferiority complex if you don’t succeed, striving for superiority is the drive behind all behaviour. Karen Horney: sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases. Focuses on anxiety, neurosis stems from basic hostility and basic anxiety. Basic Hostility: anger or rage that originates in childhood and stems from fear of being neglected or rejected by one’s parents. Because hostility toward one’s parents is so threatening, however, it is often turned inward and converted into basic anxiety (feeling of being isolated and helpless in a world conceived as potentially hostile.) 3 neurotic trends:
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- Fall '13