Bronfenbrenner proposes that the natural environment actually consists of

Bronfenbrenner proposes that the natural environment

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■ Bronfenbrenner proposes that the natural environment actually consists of interacting contexts or systems: microsystem; mesosystem; exosystem; macrosystem; chronosystem ■ This detailed analysis of person–environment interactions has stimulated many new interpretations of development.
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Themes/issues/controversies in development Nature/nurture issue : the debate among developmental theorists about the relative importance of biological predispositions (nature) and environmental influences (nurture) as determinants of human development. Activity/passivity theme : a debate among developmental theorists about whether children are active contributors to their own development or, rather, passive recipients of environmental influence. Continuity/discontinuity issue: a debate among theorists about whether developmental changes are quantitative and continuous, or qualitative and discontinuous (i.e., stage-like) Most contemporary developmentalists are theoretically eclectic: ■ They recognize that no single theory offers a totally adequate account of human development. ■ They believe that each theory contributes importantly to our understanding of development.
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Activity 1 Perspectives Representative theory Key propositions Contributions Criticisms Psychoanalytic Freud’s Psychosexual Erikson’s Psychosocial Learning J.B. Watson’s radical behaviorism B. F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning A. Bandura’s SLT Cognitive Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory Vigotsky’s socio-cultural theory Information processing theory Ethological perspective Ethological & evolutionary theory Ecological systems perspective U. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory
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2. Adolescence: History and meaning Young people- 10-24 years Youth -15-24 years Adolescence- 10-19 years The concept of ‘Adolescence’ invented in 1904 Granville Stanley Hall(1844-1924) associated with the invention of Adolescence Hall established an experimental psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1882 The term ‘Adolescence’ came from a Latin word ‘Adolescere’ which means to grow Adolescence refers to a transition period between childhood and adulthood[in most literature the time between 12 and 20 year] The meaning and timeframe of adolescence varies across cultures and time.
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The Nature of Adolescence: STORM AND STRESS IN ADOLESCENCE G. Stanley Hall (1904): adolescence is a time of “storm and stress” Typically the period during puberty, as the adolescents adopt adult social roles and responsibilities, is considered a time of storm and stress . According to G. Stanley Hall, adolescents… Display mood alterations. Distressing and unpredictable thoughts. High anxiety and exaggerated defense mechanisms Impulsive, inconsistent, or inappropriate behavior. Inner disturbance.
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STORM AND STRESS IN ADOLESCENCE Storm and Stress is related to hormonal changes associated with puberty and offers a good account of the uniqueness of adolescence.
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