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: just a material thing but we cherish what it means (the meaning of the same symbol is different from culture to culture)Language: a system of symbols that allows people to communicate
Cultural transmission: way of sharing cultureSapir-Whorf hypothesis: we know the world only in terms of language and we are taught to feel the way we do about certain thingsValues: standards of desirability, goodness, beauty which serve as a broad guideline for social living. I.e. statements we hold to be true; capitalism, achievement, successSapir- Whorf HypothesisWe know the world only in terms of language and we are taught to feel the way we do about certain thingsWhat are subcultures, countercultures, and their differences?Subcultures – (within): culture with own languages, values, way of dressing. They don’t try to change overall culture/societyoEx: “country” people within the USACountercultures – (against): groups whose cultural patterns are at greats odds with wider society. Tries to change overall societyoEx: women’s movement, KKK, homeschooling (NOT ALWAYS NEGATIVE)Differences: subcultures do their own thing within society without making any disruptions. Counterculture do their thing that is against overall culture and try tochange things in overall cultureMaterial and Non-Material CultureMaterial:a table Non-material: a craft table, a dining table (adding extra societal value to an item)oEx: We have the technology to create a human heart but nonmaterial culture is not okay with it, it’s not okay with us playing godEthnocentrismValuing one’s own culture over another A biased “cultural yardstick” oEx: “In the states we have huge blocks of cheese, in Canada the blocks areso little. It’s better in the U.S.”Not always negative; positives – in group loyalties, negatives – discriminationCultural RelativismRecognizing the differences in cultures but NOT JUDGING THEMCulture ShockDisorientation due to the inability to make sense out of one’s surroundingsNorms and SanctionsNorms = expectation of “right” behaviorSanctions = expression of approval for opening norms or expression of disapproval for disobeying normsIdeal vs. Real CultureIdeal: mandated by values/norms. The way things should beReal: only approximates the cultural expectations. The way things are
High Culture & Popular CultureHigh Culture: cultural patterns found within a society’s elite groups; how we are supposed to livePopular Culture:patterns that are widespread; things that are seen across the boardCultural DiversityImpact of immigration- “patchwork quilt”In the US, our culture its diverse because there are people with all kinds of different backgrounds and from all around the worldCultural Lag, Change and Cultural “Leveling”Cultural Lag: non material culture lags behind material cultureCultural Leveling: USA got TV first, everyone has it – its common, but then a few years later, its common for every household to have a TV (standard same level). Mostly western culture being diffused