Hinduism is a type of polytheism the worship of many gods who according to

Hinduism is a type of polytheism the worship of many

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Hinduism is a type of polytheism, the worship of many gods who, according to Hinduism, all work to control nature, reproduction, crops, and other facets of life o A central tenet of Hinduism is the belief in reincarnation—the idea that each of us is born and reborn over and over again in a cycle that ends in salvation only by following the traditional rules of caste, decency, and prayer o Karma: “act” but also thoughts and speech, every person and element of the natural world has a role to fill Buddhism is the most prevalent form of ethicalism, in which moral principles are the sacred sources of belief o About 7.1% of the world’s population are Buddhist, primarily in Asia and like Hindus, Buddhists adhere to a belief in karma o They also hold “four noble truths”: that all existence is suffering, that the cause of suffering is desire, that nirvana (a release of the soul from the body and karmic baggage) can be achieved only through giving up our cravings, and that is achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path of right living (w/ 8 facets) Judaism is the world’s eleventh-largest organized religion, with an estimated 14 million adherents, representing approximately 0.2% of the world’s population o The Jewish faith, like Christianity and Islam, is not monolithic, meaning that it does not just have one form About 16.3% of the world’s population and 23% of Americans are nonreligious, including agnostics and atheists o This nonreligious hold a wide range of beliefs, such as atheism, agnosticism, and humanism o Agnostics may believe in God, but feel that theological claims are not provable or that specific religions are unnecessary for their own practices of spirituality o Humanists embrace an ethical philosophy that prioritizes social justice with teachings from a range of sources, including religious teachings, science, and philosophy o Atheists believe that no god exists; they may or may not be humanists Theory: Marx, Weber, and Durkheim Karl Marx In studying religion, Karl Marx used a conflict theoretical approach, the basis of his social theory called dialectic materialism, which is the struggle between R V CHAPTER 16: RELIGION
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contradictory, interacting forces that eventually results not in victory for one of the forces, but in the creation of a third force that replaces the two opposing forces For Marx, a major force of change throughout history was conflict o This conflict was at the heart of all social facts of life: education, family, art, and religion To Marx, religion is a clever means of stratification, of allocating rewards such that some people benefit handsomely from the fruits of society while many others suffer He claimed religious convictions hold sway over people with promises of happiness in the afterlife, keeping them duped into remaining exploited workers in oppressive, alienating factory jobs Marx’s conflict theory of religion links two ideas that might seem at odds: inequality and faith Because religion comes with a set of norms about how the world works, faith can
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