Copy of Anthro 41A Final Review.docx

More than 100000 german peasants are killed treaty of

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More than 100,000 German peasants are killed Treaty of Augsburg—1555: 1555: Emperor Charles grants religious tolerance to Lutherans This was largely due to Charles being defeated by Henry II (French King) who was helped by Protestants who were angry at his oppression The religious freedom established by this treaty maintains relative peace in the Holy Roman Empire until renewed religious fighting breaks out in 1618 Thirty Years’ War—1618-1648: The worst war of the Protestant Reformation The Hapsburg emperors once again antagonized the Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire by permitting the religious prosecution of all Protestants and destroying all Protestant churches The emperors once again claimed that the Hapsburg family had been chosen by God to defend the Catholic Church and prepare the world for Christ’s return Protestants formed the Evangelical Union (led by Protestant nobility) as a response The Evangelical Union fought against the Hapsburg Emperor and other Catholic princes who had formed the Catholic League o Evangelical Union vs. Catholic League This war began in the Holy Roman Empire and quickly spread across all of Western Europe—not in Great Britain, Scotland and Ireland o Sultan Osman II of the Ottoman Empire was also involved (supported Protestants) By 1627, the Hapsburg Emperor Ferdinand II outlawed all forms of Protestantism within his empire War ends with the signing of the "Treaty of Westphalia" in 1648 o Over 7 million Europeans died (2/3 of the population) Disease is rampant o 50% of all men in the Holy Roman Empire died o The power of the pope and emperor are drastically reduced o Feudal system is abolished in most of Europe
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The old feudal order is replaced with “sovereign” nation-states Peace of Westphalia—1646-1648: This finally resolved the Thirty Years’ War between the Catholic Habsburg Family and the Protestants that spread across all of Europe and killed 7 million people o This is regarded as the formal end of feudalism in much of Western Europe o The Holy Roman Empire is simply a figurehead with very little power Each “modern” nation-state had: o Their own sovereign borders o Independent rulers o Religious and national identity The emperor had no more power other than over his own homeland of Austria o No one recognizes him as an authority figure anymore o No one pays him taxes anymore The Peace of Westphalia - What it stated: That a country's boundaries could no longer change due to war/conquest/marriage Each country had to declare a national/unalterable religion The ruler of each nation had to practice the national religion The pope could no longer demand taxes from any country The emperor now only had political power in his homeland of Austria, and no influence outside of it Mercantilism-Proto capitalism: Banking, trade and finance, were growing during the Middle Ages and this resulted in growth of the middle classes - However, there would be no full-scale capitalism until the
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