1 As illustrated in that table accidents unintentional injuries accounted for

1 as illustrated in that table accidents

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ages) and for persons ages 25–44 years are provided in Table 3.1. As illustrated in that table,  accidents (unintentional injuries) accounted for 4.3% of all deaths, but 21.6% of deaths among 25– 44 year olds.8 Sometimes, particularly in occupational epidemiology, proportionate mortality is used to compare  deaths in a population of interest (say, a workplace) with the proportionate mortality in the broader  population. This comparison of two proportionate mortalities is called a  proportionate mortality  ratio ,or PMR for short. A PMR greater than 1.0 indicates that a particular cause accounts for a 
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greater proportion of deaths in the population of interest than you might expect. For example,  construction workers may be more likely to die of injuries than the general population. However, PMRs can be misleading, because they are not based on mortality rates. A low cause- specific mortality rate in the population of interest can elevate the proportionate mortalities for all of  the other causes, because they must add up to 100%. Those workers with a high injury-related  proportionate mortality very likely have lower proportionate mortalities for chronic or disabling  conditions that keep people out of the workforce. In other words, people who work are more likely to  be healthier than the population as a whole — this is known as the healthy worker effect.  Exercise 3.5 Using the data in Table 3.8, calculate the missing proportionate mortalities for persons ages 25—44  years for diseases of the heart and assaults (homicide). Table 3.8 Number, Proportion (Percentage), and Ranking of Deaths for Leading Causes of  Death, All Ages and 25–44 Year Age Group — United States, 2003 All ages Ages 25–44 Years Number PercentageRankNumberPercentage Rank All causes 2,443,93 0 100 128,924 100 Diseases of heart 684,462 28 1 16,283 3 Malignant neoplasms 554,643 22.7 2 19,041 14.8 2 Cerebrovascular_disease 157,803 6.5 3 3,004 2.3 8 Chronic lower respiratory_diseases 126,128 5.2 4 401 0.3 * Accidents (unintentional injuries) 105,695 4.3 5 27,844 21.6 1 Diabetes mellitus 73,965 3 6 2,662 2.1 9 Influenza & pneumonia 64,847 2.6 7 1,337 1 10 Alzheimer’s_disease 63,343 2.6 8 0 0 * Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis 33,615 1.4 9 305 0.2 * Septicemia 34,243 1.4 10 328 0.2 * Intentional self-harm (suicide) 30,642 1.3 11 11,251 8.7 4 Chronic liver_disease and cirrhosis 27,201 1.1 12 3,288 2.6 7 Assault (homicide) 17,096 0.7 13 7,367 5 HIV_disease 13,544 0.5 * 6,879 5.3 6 All_other 456,703 18.7 29,480 22.9 * Not among top ranked causes
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Data Sources: CDC. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2003. MMWR 2005;2(No. 54). Hoyert DL, Kung HC, Smith BL. Deaths: Preliminary data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol. 53 no 15. Hyattsville, MD: National  Center for Health Statistics 2005: 15, 27.
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