Anat of Arg Worksheet II

1 that right means productive of so and socannot with

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[1] That ‘right’ means ‘productive of so and so’…cannot with any plausibility be maintained…. [2] When a plain man fulfils a promise because he thinks he ought to do so, it seems clear that he does so with no thought of its total consequences, still less with any opinion that these are likely to be the best possible. [3] He thinks in fact much more of the past than of the future. [4] What makes him think it right to act in a certain way is the fact that he has promised to do so--that and, usually, nothing more. W.D. Ross The Right and the Good, ch. 2 36. [1] In misguided attempts to refute the arguments of this book, some philosophers have gone to much trouble developing arguments to show that animals do not have rights. They have claimed that to have rights a being must be autonomous, or must be a member of a community, or must have the ability to respect the rights of others, or must possess a sense of justice. [2] These claims are irrelevant to the case for Animal Liberation. [3] If a being suffers there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. [4] No matter what the nature of the being, the principle of equality requires that its suffering be counted equally with the like suffering--insofar as rough comparisons can be made--of any other being. Peter Singer Animal Liberation , p. 8 37. [1] Men are no better than children if they not only accept the rule of others from force of necessity, but embrace it willingly and forfeit their duty unceasingly to weigh the merits of the actions which they perform. [2] When I place myself in the hands of another, and permit him to determine the principles by which I shall guide my behavior, I repudiate the freedom and reason which give me dignity. [3] I am then guilty of what Kant might have called the sin of willful heteronomy. [4] There would appear to be no alternative but to embrace the doctrine of anarchism and categorically deny any claim to legitimate authority by one man over another. [5] Yet I confess myself unhappy with the conclusion that I must simply leave off the search for legitimate collective authority. Robert Paul Wolff In Defense of Anarchism , p. 72 38. The general conclusion is that [1] all the objects of science, including minds and gods, are things occurring in space and time…and [2] that we can study them in virtue of the fact that we come into spatial and temporal relations with them. And therefore [3] all ideals, ultimates, symbols, agencies, and the like are to be rejected, and [4] no such distinction as that of facts and principles, or facts and values can be maintained. [5] There are only facts, i.e. occurrences in space and time. John Anderson Studies in Empirical Philosophy, p. 14 39. Let us suppose that [1] the thought in his mind is ‘you silly little twit!’ Now here too, [2] it is not enough that these words should occur to him. [3] He has to mean them. This shows once more, that [4] you cannot take any performance (even an interior performance) as itself an act of intention; for [5] if you describe a
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