In ad dition teacher and administrator fondness for

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whose cultural and language competence is restricted. In ad- dition, teacher and administrator fondness for tracking spares most teachers from having to master either the sorts of literacy and numeracy supports necessary to aid students who have significant difficulty in mastering complex content or the kind of meaningful challenge necessary to extend the learning of students whose academic progress outstrips that of their grade-level peers. Thus much of the foundational knowledge, skill, understanding, and experience that are necessary to pro- vide equity of access to high quality learning for the broad range of learners who populate the schools of today and will populate the schools of tomorrow are in short supply. Re- tooling expectations for quality teaching will have to precede a proliferation of classrooms in which quality education awaits academically diverse students. The Way Ahead How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (National Research Council 2000 ) provides a synthesis of re- search on the nature of classrooms that reflects our best un- derstanding of teaching and learning. Those classrooms are described as learner-centered, knowledge-centered, assess- ment-centered, and community-centered. Here, I separate knowledge-centered and instruction-centered for clarity in spotlighting the curriculum/assessment/instruction continuum that is critical to success in any classroom, and certainly for a teacher who aspires to create equity of access to excellent learning for a broad range of learners. The five B design characteristics ^ provide a helpful frame- work for thinking about re-tooling teaching. Elaborating the five design elements with key findings from Hattie s synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses on student achievement ( 2009 , 2012 ), related guidance from key sources on culturally com- petent teaching (e.g., Banks and Banks 2004 ; Gay 2010 ), and the principles of effective differentiation (Sousa and Tomlinson 2011 ; Tomlinson 2001 , 2013 ; Tomlinson and McTighe 2006 ; Tomlinson and Imbeau 2010 , 2012 ; Tomlinson and Moon 2013 generates useful descriptors of how the four design elements might appear in classrooms that provide equity of access to excellence for the broadest possi- ble array of students. The following design elements and in- dicators are descriptive of teachers and classrooms where ef- fective teaching up is the norm. The Classroom is Learner-Centered & The teacher builds bridges between the students homes and school. & The classroom is validating for each student, consistently respectful of each student s humanity, culture, and experiences. & The teacher makes room in the classroom for students varied strengths, experiences, and cultural values. 206 Soc (2015) 52:203 209
& The teacher has full confidence that each student in the class has the capacity to succeed academically and con- veys that trust to the students singly and as a group. & The teacher consistently communicates caring and support to each member of the class.

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