gnesium and iron Fe rich Higher melting temperature 1200 C Higher density All

Gnesium and iron fe rich higher melting temperature

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gnesium and iron ( Fe ) rich) Higher melting temperature (~1200 C)
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Higher density All oceanic crust Ultramafic = all mantle rock E.g. basalt Granite: common rock type in continental crust, felsic, igneous rock Basalt: comprises much of upper oceanic crust, mafic, igneous rock, erupted at many volcanoes o B. Cooling environment 1. Intrusive Molten rock that buoyantly rises into existing solid rock and solidifies there slowly (rock is a good insulator Large crystals in granite 2. Extrusive Molten rock that buoyantly rises to the surface (e.g. exposed to the air, into the ocean) where it solidifies quickly Small crystals in basalt, no crystals in glass 2. Sedimentary o 1. Accumulation and cementation of mineral grains transported and deposited by Water Wind Ice E.g. sandstone (made from quartz weathered to sand) o 2. Chemical precipitation at the deposition site E.g. some limestones 3. Metamorphic o Igneous and sedimentary rocks altered by changes to pressure and temperature Changes occur in solids (not molten) Mineralogy, texture, and composition altered Often display fine-scale (and large-scale) “swirly” patterns Rise in pressure and temperature E.g. sandstone quartzite, limestone marble o Quartzite and marble will erode into their sedimentary forms Recap Igneous o Source: melting of rocks in hot, deep crust and upper mantle o Process: crystallization (solidification of magma) Sedimentary o Source: weathering and erosion of exposed rocks o Process: deposition, burial, and lithification Metamorphic o Source: rocks under high temperatures/pressures in deep crust and upper mantle o Process: recrystallization in solid state of new minerals A lot of sediment under Vancouver o Older bedrock (granites, etc) o Sedimentary bedrock (sandstones, mudstones, etc) o Sediments (Fraser River sediments overlying glacial deposits)
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The Rock Cycle 1785 – James Hutton “the father of Geology” o Wrote “Theory of the Earth with Proof and Illustrations” o The Rock Cycle Uplift erosion deposition metamorphosis uplift To understand the rock cycle, we need to understand o 1. What minerals are o 2. The 3 groups of rocks Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic o 3. The processes by which these materials move through the rock cycle o 4. The rates at which the materials move through the rocks cycle Different rock types can be transformed from one to the other o E.g. Igneous to sedimentary by erosion or to metamorphic by heat and pressure
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  • Spring '11
  • NA
  • Petrology, Granite, Crust, Structure of the Earth

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