differences such as sex, race, age, work experience, and education - Splits are generally detrimental to group functioning and performance - Groups that have subgroups may compete with each other instead of the actual competitor, learn slower, make risker decision, less creative, and experience higher levels of conflict - Subgroups may not trust each other 4. Group Decision Making (295) 1. Groups versus the individual Strengths of group decision making – groups generate more complete information and knowledge
- Offer increased diversity of views - Lead to increased acceptance of a solution Weaknesses of Group decision making - Time consuming - Conformity pressures - Group discussion can be dominated by one or a few members - Ambiguous responsibility Effectiveness and Efficiency - Generally more accurate than the judgments of the most accurate person - In terms of speed, individuals are superior - Creativity – groups tend to be more effective - Acceptance of solutions – groups are better 2. Groupthink and Group shift (296) - Groupthink – a phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action - Groupshift – a change between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group’s original position 3. Group decision making techniques - Interacting groups = typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face - Brainstorming – can overcome the pressures for conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism - Research shows that individuals working alone generate more ideas than in a group in a brainstorming session; “production blocking” – when people are generating ideas in a group, many people are talking at once which blocks individuals’ thought process - Nominal Group technique – individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion - Group members are all present but they operate independently 5. Summary and Implications for Managers
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