Permitted synthetic and non synthetic chemicals are

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Permitted synthetic and non-synthetic chemicals are listed in eco-labels, such as the GOTS ( ). The use of synthetic ame-retardants and many functional fi nishes are prohibited. Mechanical fi nishing techniques must be explored instead of chemical fi nishes wherever possible (Wakelyn and Chaudhry 2009 ). Most of the top apparel brands and retailers in the world such as Nike, Levi s, Walmart, Patagonia, Timberland, Orvis, Adidas, Marks and Spencer, Roots, Cotton Ginny, and Target have already introduced organic cotton into their product range and are expecting increases in the demand for organic textiles in coming years, particularly in the health-conscious, high-end markets (Hanu 2010 ). Besides helping the environment, there are other bene fi ts from organic cotton products. Working environments are better for those on farms, and small-scale farmers save money by not having to buy large amount of pesticides. Consumers bene fi t, also. Some suggest that organic cotton products are softer and easier on the skin. Recent awareness of these bene fi ts has increased demand for organic cotton and thus lowered its cost (Baldwin 2008 ). Organic agriculture protects the health of people and the planet by reducing the overall exposure to toxic chemicals from synthetic pesticides that can end up in the ground, air, water, and food supply, and that are associated with health conse- quences from asthma to cancer. Because organic agriculture does not use toxic and persistent pesticides, choosing organic products is an easy way to help protect oneself (OTA 2011a ). 5.2 Organic Flax The ax plant ( Linum usitatissimum ) is one of the oldest fi ber crops in the world and has been used in the production of linen for over 5,000 years. Organic linen refers to linen made from ax fi bers grown without the use of toxic pesticides or chemical fertilizers. Although there are products on the market claiming to be organic linen or eco-friendly linen, some of these products may be made from ax fi bers, but many are made from other fi bers. Like all conventional crop farming, ax cultivation has environmental impacts (Duigou et al. 2013 ), which can be greatly reduced if a certi fi ed organic method of 152 A.K. Roy Choudhury
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crop production is used. Compared with other crops, ax performs poorly in soils with low fertility and can require signi fi cant use of fertilizers. However, by using crop rotation, multi-seeding methods, biological pest control, and green manure and compost, organic ax farming can produce the seeds with reduced environmental impact. Crop rotation is not only essential from an organic certi fi cation standpoint but also for maintaining soil quality ( 2008 ). 5.3 Organic Wool and Silk Organic certi fi cation standards vary between countries. In some countries, the standards are set and overseen by the government, whereas in others, the standards are set by a non-pro fi t organization or private company. The requirements for certi fi cation of organic wool by the Organic Trade Association (OTA) in North
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