Jainism and Buddhism but excluded the followers of foreign religions such

Jainism and buddhism but excluded the followers of

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Jainism and Buddhism, but excluded the followers of "foreign religions" such Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The term has, however, raised controversy over the years with some left- leaning Indian social scientists perceiving Hindutva as far-right, focusing on cultural hegemony and homogenized majority. In 1995, the country’s Supreme Court outlined that Hindutva was "a way of life and not a religion". Part B Traditionally, Hindus have described self and other as Atman and Ahimsa . Atman is a term that refers to the inner spirit, soul, or self. Within Hindu teachings, Atman is the first principle, a person’s “true self beyond identification with phenomena – the essence of an individual”. For any person to find moksha (liberty), they must be self-knowledgeable. Simply put, realizing one's true self is akin to transcendence, and every human has Atman . In light of this, Hindus seek to hold others in reverence from the perspective of spirituality instead of materialism. By emphasizing detachment from the material world, Hinduism encourages practices such as asceticism ( Melton & Baumann, 2010). Therefore, it can be acknowledged that within the world, Atman is free from anger, greed, hypocrisy, rage and evil behaviors that may harm others. By encouraging these behaviors, Hinduism teaches Ahimsa — the ethical prohibition against causing harm to humans and other living creatures. This precept against injuring other living beings is a central tenet in Hindu philosophy. In particular, Ahimsa argues " Atman is universal oneness, present in all living beings. Atman connects and pervades in
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SURVEY OF SOUTH ASIA 4 everyone. Hurting or injuring another being is hurting the Atman , and thus one's self that exists in another body". Part C In his book, “On Hinduism and Hinduisms”, Julius Lipner defines Hinduism as a banyan tree, whose branches and roots are interconnected both below and above ground. In other words, Lipner contends that Hinduism lacks a single branch or root of Indian practice, which is the precursor of all other aspects. Instead, a large number of elements within Hinduism are interlinked and cannot be separated ( Lipner, 2004) . Purity and caste, devotion, Brahmanical, Vedic, and sectarian ideologies and practices all inform one another to make an organic whole.
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