Interference anything that impacts conversation in

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Interference: anything that impacts conversation in negative way (NOISE, anything that would impede the meaning from getting things from me to you) o Situation Frame of Reference: Sum of person’s knowledge, experience, goals, values, attitudes (ex. Your family, your environment, your school, your culture) Avoiding Ethnocentrism: o Respect listeners’ cultural values o Adapt messages to expectation o Imagine oneself in place of listeners o Be alert to feedback o Listeners also have to avoid ethnocentrism 01/31/2018 Conclusion: Signal Conclusion Reinforce central idea End on strong note
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02/19/2018 Audience-Centeredness: Audience foremost in mind during speech preparation, presentation Egocentrism: tendency to be concerned with own values, beliefs, wellbeing Demographic Analysis: Age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, racial, ethnic, cultural background, group membership, income Stereotyping: oversimplified image of a group, done by assuming all members are alike Situational Analysis: Size, Physical setting, Disposition toward topic, Disposition toward speaker, Disposition toward occasion Psychographics: lifestyle Supporting Materials: Examples Statistics Testimony Ex. Specific case to illustrate idea: o Brief o Extended o Hypothetical Tips for Examples Clarify Examples Reinforce Ideas Personalize Ideas Make vivid, richly textured Practice delivery to enhance Statistical: Mean Median Mode Tips for Statistics: Use to quantify ideas Use sparingly Identify sources Explain thoroughly Round off Use visual aids if needed Testimony: Quotations or paraphrases used to support point. Expert Testimony: Testimony from recognized experts Peer Testimony: Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience, insight Direct Quote: Testimony presented word for word
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Out-of-Context Quote: Distorting statement by removing words, phrases around it
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  • Winter '15
  • P.H
  • Huffington,  Speech Communication Process

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