Mike press turns our attention to the methodological

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Mike Press turns our attention to the methodological shifts that are beginning to affect the practices of design management and that are driven by fundamental shifts
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in the relationships between users and producers. In Working the Crowd: Crowd sourcing as a Strategy for Co-design he uses a set of examples to demonstrate diverse practices that place the crowd in the driving seat of innovation . He goes on to map the historical precedents of participative and user-focused design strategies before he summarizes some of the key theoretical perspectives that are useful in understanding the changes taking place. Press builds on work by Charles Leadbeater who sees the orchestrating of creative conversations and the enabling of crowds to come together and to share their ideas productively as one of the central tasks in the future. If this is so, the focus of design management may change profoundly. In the least, we can anticipate new methods and new areas of practice and research. For the closing chapter, we have asked Richard Boland, who together with Fred Collopy coined the term Managing as Designing in 2004, to reflect on the implications of their interpretation. We learn that both philosophical and practical concerns have led them to object to the role of the manager as decision maker. The mindset of managing as decision-making has been problematic in many areas but its principal problem, Boland states, is that it does not reflect the reality of managing. Instead, he explains that managing as designing is a call to see that what most managers do, most of the time, is design. We think these insights into management practice have the potential to create ripples through, if not shake, the foundations of design management. It is as much a change in perspective of who and what a designer is as it questions the characteristics and the roles assigned to the position and practice of a manager. If the manager is already a designer, where does this leave the designer in the organization? And what about the skills and characteristics of the design manager ? If managing is a design activity, where and how does the design manager, who has studiously learned about decision making over the past decades, fit in? We are off into a changing world. Exciting it is. And uncertain. It will be interesting and fascinating to observe how the field of design management will cope with these new turns and shifts. 26 The Evolution of Design and Design Management in China Cai Jun The progress of China since the 1980s has marked a crucial chapter in the modern history of global economic and social development. China s economy is influential in the world today, yet it was not worth mentioning in the 1980s. China has experienced rapid social evolution and economic transformation, from which modern Chinese design has gradually emerged. The role of design within China is closely related to the nation s development into a major global manufacturing base. By joining the World Trade Organization (WTO), China bolstered its position as a low-cost supplier to
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