Solid fats butter shortening beef fat lard liquid

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solid fats - butter, shortening, beef fat, lard; liquid - vegetable oils (olive, canola, corn soybean oils) lean - <10% fat by weight, extra lean - <5%; ground beef is exception (lean = 22% or less) products w/ <0.5g trans fat can be labeled as 0 - very misguiding, as 2g should be the maximum amount digested/day mono/polyunsaturated fat - optional, no DV's for them; labels include: fat-free - <0.5g; low-fat - <3g; etc. reduced-fat foods include added sugars, soluble fiber or modified proteins that simulate fat, or fats that have been altered to reduce/prevent absorption (bad b/c they reduce absorption of fat-soluble substances like vitamin ADEK) countermeasure: vitamins have been fortified w/ them (Olestra, sucrose polyester); but then, they no longer contain beta-carotene and other important stuff problem w/ Olestra - abdominal cramping and loose shits (doesn't get digested) polysaccharides such as pectin and gums are used in baked goods, dressings, salads, ice cream; thicken; reduce fat and adds soluble fiber sucrose replaces fat sometimes protein-based replacements - made from milk and egg (mimic creamy texture of fat), <2 Calories/g, used in frozen desserts, cheese, but can't be fried
only 10% of glycer. in plants are diglycerides, but ppl have made oils w/ 70% diglycerides (aka ENOVA oil) - not lower in calories, but replace triglycer. thus lower blood lipid levels, fat low-fat: recommended b/c same essential nutrients w/ less calories and saturated fats and chol. (increase nutrient density) - ex: low fat dressing but not always - sometimes have more sugar than full fat, and modifications of junk food is still worse than taking good food (wheat bread over cookies, etc.) ch 6 protein - plentiful/big variety, havent changed much past 30 years - advertised to be good, make ppl smart, etc. quality of life - directly correlated w/ animal protein (most concentrated source) vegetable sources of protein: legumes, rice, nuts, pasta, etc. animal products - excellent source of B vitamins and minerals (iron/zinc/calcium), low in fiber and often high saturated fat and chol. plants - same except more fiber, but less absorbable forms, along w/ unsaturated fats, phytochemicals, etc. amino acid - central carbon atom, bound to hydrogen atom, amino group, acid group, and a side chain (unique 3D shape that essential to function) - includes CHO + N 20 commonly found, 9 can't be made (essential/indispensible amino acids), rest are nonessential/dispensible amino acids, made by transamination (amino group from one amino acid is transferred to carbon compound to form new amino acid) conditionally essential - under certain conditions or at certain times of life (tyrosine when there's no phenylalanine, cysteine when no methionine) linked together by peptide bonds - form between acid group of one amino acid and nitrogen atom of another; dipeptide, tripeptide, polypeptide (3+) folds and bends in chains occur when amino acids attract/repel each other (and water) - shape of final protein determines function elongated shape of connective tissue proteins help give strength to fingernails/ligaments,

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