Running west to east touching 9 countries begins in

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running west to east, touching 9 countries; begins in the German Alps and runs 2,850 km where it empties into the Black Sea in Romania 2) Rhine River runs just over 1,300 km through the interior of Europe, starting in the Swiss Alps and running north where it empties into the North Sea of the Netherlands Other important rivers include the Thames River in the U.K. and the Seine and Rhone Rivers in France, as well as others IV. FERTILE PLAINS One of the most fertile agricultural regions in the world is the Northern European Plain , stretching across large parts of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and Poland and then eastward into Russia Smaller fertile plains also used for farming exist in Sweden, Hungary, and parts of northern Italy
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View of the Danube River Budapest, Hungary
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V. RESOURCES Europe has an abundance of two natural resources needed for an industrialized economy coal and iron ore A) Energy Oil and natural gas were found beneath the North Se a in 1959, and today is a major oil and gas producing area of the world B) Agricultural Land About 33% of Europe’s land is suitable for agriculture (the world average is 11%) Major crops produced in Europe include grains, grapes, olives, and cork Timber is also cut from the large forests in Scandinavia and in the Alps
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V. RESOURCES (continued…) C) Resources Shape Life As is true of everywhere in the world, the resources available in Europe shape the lives of the people who live there Resources directly affect the food people eat, the jobs they hold, the houses in which they live, and even their culture The distribution of resources creates regional differences within Europe; for example, Ireland doesn’t have many energy resources, such as coal, so they learned how to cut peat from the land and use it as fuel Peat partially decayed plant matter found in bogs (places where the soil is always moist) Just like resources, climate also affects the lives of people in Europe, as you will learn about next time
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I. A HISTORY OF ANCIENT GLORY Two geographic advantages helped the Mediterranean become the region where European civilization developed: 1) a mild climate 2) the nearby Mediterranean Sea encouraged overseas trade and made transportation easier A) Greece: Birthplace of Democracy Beginning about 2000 B.C., people in what is today Greece began settling into different city- states - a political unit made up of cities and its surrounding areas Since this region is mountainous, these city-states were isolated from each other, and each formed their own separate governments One of these city-states, Athens, developed the first democracy, a government in which the people rule In Athens, all free adult males were citizens who had the right to serve in the law-making assembly It would be this form of government that would inspire many future governments for the next 4,000+ years
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I. A HISTORY OF ANCIENT GLORY (continued…) B) The Roman Empire Rome ruled most of the Italian peninsula by 275 B.C.
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  • Fall '19
  • Northern Europe, Bulgaria,  I. PENINSULAS

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