Explain the political critique and the social

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6. Explain the political critique and the social critique of human rights.Paragraph one: The significance of human rights
-Inherent rights regardless of social status - Universal -Individual - civil and political rights -The ultimate triumph of human rights has to do with the struggle with the communist regime- individuals called dissidents ( can link HR to dissidents hence it opened a new way of looking at human rights in the contemporary world.-Enlightenment - period in which human rights arose -> assumes humans are free and rational by birth ( Immanuel Kant: for him human beings because they are rational and free they don't need the church since they have their own way of understanding life) -Sapere Aude : have the courage to use your understanding -For Kant : we can do without god Paragraph 2: political critique -Articulated after the french revolution -Conservative critique : The notion of human rights is too abstract (Edmund Burke) : no human is free from social status in which they are born -Burke will say there is no way of applying human rights universally. Conservatives takes issue with the universal element -Can be destructive of social structure-encourage individuals to think of themselves ahead of the benefit of their families/nations -Will say that before the proclamation of human rights we knew our place in the world -Conditional freedom ( God’s will) human rights promote unconditional freedom -Burke draws our attention that we need a political community if we want our rights to be operational-It is conditional freedom ( because it depends on gods will ) -After the french revolution comes the idea that we no longer have to live the laws of god -Kant : motto of the enlightenment is sapere aude -- courage to use you understandingParagraph 3 : Socialist Critique -Karl Marx: Says that human rights are not human rights but for bourgeois rights ( the property owner -Similar to political critique the autonomous individual is an illusion -Notion of liberty /freedom : in the discourse of human rights there is freedom from intervention whereas for socialist we need to have the freedom to survive (achieved through revolution) -> not possible under bourgeois rights -Human rights separates people from each other -These bourgeois rights reinforce the capitalist system of exploitation -What is needed is a revolution of the working class-Human rights are not value neutral -Other socialists say that this phenomenon is the notion of individualism -So we will not become free and equal through human rights and its development

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