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Emotions developed because of their ADAPTIVE value, allowing the organism to avoid danger and survive. Know how we feel before we think abouthow we feelJames-Lange Conscious experience of emotion results from one’s awareness of autonomic arousalCannon-BardThalamus sends information to the limbic system and cerebral cortex simultaneously so that conscious experience of emotion accompanies physiological processesOpponent-process Following a strong emotion, an opposing emotion counters the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotion. Opposing emotion becomes stronger Schachter- two-factorWe determine an emotion from our physiological arousal and then label that emotion according to our cognitive explanation we are in Cognitive-appraisalOur emotional experience depends on our interpretation of the situation we are inControversies in Developmental PsychNature-nurtureExtent to which heredity and the environment each influence behaviorContinuity-discontinuity Whether development is gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stagesStability- change Whether personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespanWays to assess change over time:Cross-sectional – different age groups tested at the same timeLongitudinal – same participants are tested multiple times with the same or similar tests
Cohort sequential – combines cross-sectional and longitudinal to correct for cohort effect**cohort effect – observed group differences based on the ear when people were born and grew up, exposing them to particular experiences that may affect the results of a cross-sectional study Physical DevelopmentCritical periodTime interval during which specific stimuli have a major effect on development that the stimuli do not produce at other times Prenatal developmentPeriod that begins with fertilization, or conception,and ends with birthZygote Fertilized ovum with genetic instructions for a new individual, normally contained in 46 chromosomesEmbryo About 2 weeks through 2 months after fertilization,most organ development beginsFetusAbout 9 weeks after conception to birth when organ systems begin to interact; sex organs and sense organs become refinedTeratogenHarmful substances during the prenatal period that can cause birth defectsFetal alcohol syndromeCluster of abnormalities that occurs in babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy including intelligence, small head with flat face, misshapen eyes, flat nose, and thin upperlip, as well as some degree of intellectual impairmentNeonateNewborn baby from birth to 1 month old; shows reflexive behavior Rooting reflex – newborn’s tendency to move its head when stroked on the cheek, turn toward stimulus as if searching for a nipple, and open its mouthSucking – automatic response of drawing in anything at the mouthSwallowing – automatic contraction of throat muscles that enables food to pass into the