Emotions developed because of their ADAPTIVE value allowing the organism to

Emotions developed because of their adaptive value

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Emotions developed because of their ADAPTIVE value, allowing the organism to avoid danger and survive. Know how we feel before we think about how we feel James-Lange Conscious experience of emotion results from one’s awareness of autonomic arousal Cannon-Bard Thalamus sends information to the limbic system and cerebral cortex simultaneously so that conscious experience of emotion accompanies physiological processes Opponent-process Following a strong emotion, an opposing emotion counters the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotion. Opposing emotion becomes stronger Schachter- two-factor We determine an emotion from our physiological arousal and then label that emotion according to our cognitive explanation we are in Cognitive-appraisal Our emotional experience depends on our interpretation of the situation we are in Controversies in Developmental Psych Nature-nurture Extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior Continuity-discontinuity Whether development is gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages Stability- change Whether personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan Ways to assess change over time: Cross-sectional – different age groups tested at the same time Longitudinal – same participants are tested multiple times with the same or similar tests
Cohort sequential – combines cross-sectional and longitudinal to correct for cohort effect* *cohort effect – observed group differences based on the ear when people were born and grew up, exposing them to particular experiences that may affect the results of a cross-sectional study Physical Development Critical period Time interval during which specific stimuli have a major effect on development that the stimuli do not produce at other times Prenatal development Period that begins with fertilization, or conception, and ends with birth Zygote Fertilized ovum with genetic instructions for a new individual, normally contained in 46 chromosomes Embryo About 2 weeks through 2 months after fertilization, most organ development begins Fetus About 9 weeks after conception to birth when organ systems begin to interact; sex organs and sense organs become refined Teratogen Harmful substances during the prenatal period that can cause birth defects Fetal alcohol syndrome Cluster of abnormalities that occurs in babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy including intelligence, small head with flat face, misshapen eyes, flat nose, and thin upper lip, as well as some degree of intellectual impairment Neonate Newborn baby from birth to 1 month old; shows reflexive behavior Rooting reflex – newborn’s tendency to move its head when stroked on the cheek, turn toward stimulus as if searching for a nipple, and open its mouth Sucking – automatic response of drawing in anything at the mouth Swallowing – automatic contraction of throat muscles that enables food to pass into the
esophagus without choking

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