ch12

Psychology in Action

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who feels the less intense love will have more power, which comes from the other person trying to please him or her. A third psychological need, the need for freedom relates to the desire to keep options open. Many people will argue against a marriage or commitment because they don't want to lose their options. When people take a job, they often barter off some freedom (loss of time), but they gain some power (money) in return. One of the reasons for the punishing effect of jail is that it interferes with a basic need--the desire for freedom. The final psychological need, desire for fun, is not often listed by other theorists, the only exception being Berne (transactional analysis) who has an analogous concept in desire for structure. Although, higher primates appear to find humor in some of the games they play, the degree to which laughter is developed in humans is unique and largely a function of the highly developed language capacity. It is fun that provides the spice of life and one who lives constantly without fun can find life a rather boring affair. One of the benefits of power is the increased access to better ways of having fun, for example, snow skiing, golf, and gourmet dining. As you might suspect, Glasser feels that part of the problem in satisfying psychological needs is the conflict among needs. They are not static and fixed in an individual and they vary with life stage and situation. Just when a person feels he or she has it made, a psychological need may increase in intensity and demand satisfaction, upsetting the earlier equilibrium that a person had worked out among his or her psychological drives. Reference: Glasser, W.G. (1984). Control Theory: A New Explanation of How We Control Our Lives . New York: Harper & Row. Instructor’s Resource Guide              Chapter 12                                     Page   122
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K ey T erms emotion (p. 406) motivation (p. 406) THEORIES AND CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION arousal theory (p. 410) drive-reduction theory (p. 409) hierarchy of needs (p. 412) homeostasis (p. 409) incentive theory (p. 412) instinct (p. 409) instinct theory (p. 408) MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR achievement motivation (p. 419) anorexia nervosa (p. 417) bulimia nervosa (p. 417) THEORIES AND CONCEPTS OF EMOTION amygdala (p. 422) Cannon–Bard theory (p. 425) facial-feedback hypothesis (p. 425) James–Lange theory (p. 425) mirror neurons (p. 423) Schachter’s two-factor theory (p. 427) CRITICAL THINKING ABOUT MOTIVATION AND EMOTION emotional intelligence (EI) (p. 432) extrinsic motivation (p. 430) intrinsic motivation (p. 430) polygraph (p. 432)      D iscussion Q uestions Instructor’s Resource Guide              Chapter 12                                     Page   123
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1. Are anorexia and bulimia caused by our society? What are the social pressures to be thin?
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