According to Singapore Productivity Association SPA 2010 there was an argument

According to singapore productivity association spa

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According to Singapore Productivity Association (SPA, 2010), there was an argument that leadership is a social influence which individual exhibits and gets the support of other persons in the accomplishment of a common goal. It had to do with the role someone play in influencing followers in order to achieve organizational goals. Another connotation of leadership considered by Moshane and Vanglino (2000) maintained that leadership is the process of influencing people and providing an enabling environment for them to achieve team or organizational goals and objectives. Inyang (2004:121) defined leadership as a process which involves the use of non-coercive influence to shape a goup or organizational goals, motivate behavior towards achieving the goals as well as define the group’s culture. From the above frameworks, leadership occurs when one individual influences other to perform voluntarily above the minimum requirement of their work. Organizations productivity and performance is dependent on the leadership style adopted. This is to say that they were intertwined showing the leader’s willingness, commitment, selflessness, pro-activeness etc. to act in a given way to bring forth increase in the performance of the organization, effectiveness, efficiency and general increase in employee performance and productivity. Leadership style should be dependent on the task and the people being led, the environment and the leader initiative. 14
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2.6 Critique of the existing literature The traits approach of leadership suffers a flow of critics; the theory focused on how leadership effectiveness is perceived by the group rather than any empirical measures of effectiveness, Perceived effectiveness without the use of any empirical data. Additionally, other research had even found that leadership behaviors were a more effective predictor of effectiveness than leadership traits (Derue, 2011). The approach fixes effectiveness of leadership on inborn psychological structures and limits the value of learning and teaching in regards to leadership (pervin, 1994). Inbuilt personality traits may not be as fixed or influential in the leadership as the theory suggests. Furthermore, trait theory also fails to take situations into account that may influence the outcome since different situations may require different traits from leaders. Situational theory of leadership had also been criticized, situational theory was a popular conception of leadership; however, as experience with the original Hersey & Blanchard model accrued, problems with the construct appeared. Nicholls (1985) described three flaws with the theory dealing with its consistency, continuity, and conformity. Bass (2008) agreed, noting lack of internal consistency, conceptual contradictions, and ambiguities. Other scholars suggested additional weaknesses of situational theory (Bass, 2008; Glynn & DeJordy, 2010).
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