According to Singapore Productivity Association (SPA, 2010), there was an argument thatleadership is a social influence which individual exhibits and gets the support of other persons inthe accomplishment of a common goal. It had to do with the role someone play in influencingfollowers in order to achieve organizational goals. Another connotation of leadership consideredby Moshane and Vanglino (2000) maintained that leadership is the process of influencing peopleand providing an enabling environment for them to achieve team or organizational goals andobjectives.Inyang (2004:121) defined leadership as a process which involves the use of non-coerciveinfluence to shape a goup or organizational goals, motivate behavior towards achieving the goalsas well as define the group’s culture. From the above frameworks, leadership occurs when oneindividual influences other to perform voluntarily above the minimum requirement of their work.Organizations productivity and performance is dependent on the leadership style adopted. This isto say that they were intertwined showing the leader’s willingness, commitment, selflessness,pro-activeness etc. to act in a given way to bring forth increase in the performance of theorganization, effectiveness, efficiency and general increase in employee performance andproductivity. Leadership style should be dependent on the task and the people being led, theenvironment and the leader initiative.14
2.6 Critique of the existing literatureThe traits approach of leadership suffers a flow of critics; the theory focused on how leadershipeffectiveness is perceived by the group rather than any empirical measures of effectiveness,Perceived effectiveness without the use of any empirical data. Additionally, other research hadeven found that leadership behaviors were a more effective predictor of effectiveness thanleadership traits (Derue, 2011).The approach fixes effectiveness of leadership on inborn psychological structures and limits thevalue of learning and teaching in regards to leadership (pervin, 1994). Inbuilt personality traitsmay not be as fixed or influential in the leadership as the theory suggests. Furthermore, traittheory also fails to take situations into account that may influence the outcome since differentsituations may require different traits from leaders.Situational theory of leadership had also been criticized, situational theory was a popularconception of leadership; however, as experience with the original Hersey & Blanchard modelaccrued, problems with the construct appeared. Nicholls (1985) described three flaws with thetheory dealing with its consistency, continuity, and conformity. Bass (2008) agreed, noting lackof internal consistency, conceptual contradictions, and ambiguities. Other scholars suggestedadditional weaknesses of situational theory (Bass, 2008; Glynn & DeJordy, 2010).