variable and generosity is the variable A Confounding dependent B Dependent

# Variable and generosity is the variable a confounding

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____ variable and generosity is the ______ variable. A. Confounding, dependentB. Dependent, confoundingC. Dependent, independentD. Independent, dependent
Three Claims Claim: the argument that someone is trying to make or proposition that someone asserts EX: Music lessons can raise a child’s IQ
Three Claims Frequency and intensity claims Association claims Causal claims
“40% of Americans took an antidepressant in 2013” Gives percentage or mean of some “event” in population (Americans exercise .75 times a week) Focus on only one variable (% of Americans taking meds) Variable ALWAYS measured, never manipulated
“Income is inversely related to heart disease” X and Y are related As x changes, so does Y Does not claim that X causes Y! Claim allows vbls being related for any reason Two measured (not manipulated) variables
Four Types of Associations: Positive Negative ( r = .35) ( r = -.35) % abdominal fat min/day on phone Level of dementia age 60 Written pages/day
Four Types of Associations: Curved Relationship ( r = 0) No relationship ( r = 0) Duration of Use ADHD Drugs Frequency of adult drug use 50100150200250 H o rsepow e r 10 20 30 40 50 M iles p e r G a llon R S q L inea r = 0 .595 r is misleading
What type of relationship is this (+,0,-)? Facebook users get worse grades in college. OMG! Texting and IM-ing doesn’t affect spelling! Mother’s heartburn means a hairy newborn.
“Music lessons can increase a child’s IQ” Has two variables and the variables covary (related) As x changes, so does Y, AND X is responsible for changes in Y (necessary and sufficient; not necessarily sole cause, except in the study) Can be probabilistic, e.g., drug effectiveness
Identifying Claims in the Media: frequency, association, or cause? [A=freq,B=assoc,C=cause] a. Fasting may fend off jet lag. (Cause) b. People in large families less likely to show PTSD. (Associate) c. Long-term 9/11 stress found in Manhattan. (Freq) d. Want a higher GPA? Go to a private college. e. ADHD workers predicted to be less productive . f. When moms criticize, dads back off baby care. g. Troubling rise in underweight babies in US. h. MMR shot does not cause autism, large study says . i. Breastfeeding boosts children’s IQ. (Cause) j. Breastfeeding rates hit new high in United States . k. Heavy kids read more books.
Researcher’s Claim The purpose or inference (claim) that you want to make determines what the IV, DV and confounding variables are. Alcohol consumption can be an IV, DV or confounding variable . Drinking (IV) leads to poor decision making (DV) Negative affect (IV) leads to drinking (DV) Anger management (or how to win friends at a bar) compared to control group (IV) on outbursts (DV) – drinking as confound, e.g., reason for enrolling if not assigned to group
Research Design In an experimental study, the participants are ASSIGNED to conditions or treatments, that is, they are assigned to the levels of the IV. The IV can be nominal (categories) or continuous.

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• Fall '08
• Staff
• Causality, external validity, internal validity, Confounding, Statistical terminology