CLEP Principles of Management 1

96 span of control number of subordinates reporting

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96. Span of control - number of subordinates reporting to a given superior. A wide span of managerial control is advisable when the organization has established operating procedures because managers who have a wide span of control have a large number of employees answering to them. 97. 98. Job enlargement – ( horizontal job loading ) workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting. Job enlargement involves adding to the position horizontally, by requiring more duties of a similar level of skill. While job enrichment, expands a position vertically with responsibility and depth, job enlargement involves simply adding more work. For example, giving a dishwasher a broader range of things to wash is job enlargement. 99. 100. Job enrichment – (( vertical job loading ) involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Job enrichment involves adding vertically to a job by giving the position planning and controlling responsibilities. Job enrichment is designed to increase worker motivation by giving them responsibility , and opportunities for professional growth and achievement. In many cases, a job can get so specialized that it becomes boring. Job enrichment is often a solution for this, and is basically the opposite of job specialization; it involves giving additional responsibilities. Job enrichment involves increasing the depth of the job--not giving just more work, but adding job planning and controlling elements. This is in contrast to job enlargement , which involves just adding more of the same work--the worker gets no satisfaction out of job enlargement, but job enrichment can make a job more satisfying. 101. 102. TRAINING On-The-Job Training - employee learns while he is productively employed- often being coached while he performs his regular job. On-the-job training (OJT) is probably the oldest type of employee training around. Most appropriate for a simple task Vestibule Training involves in-house training, but it is in an area separate from the normal pressures of the position. What the employee produces during Vestibule Training may be actually used by the company, but the important thing is that he is in a separate area specifically for training.
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Apprenticeship is a type of training which involves a long-term obligation to work under a skilled worker in return for training in that skill. Apprenticeship involves working under a skilled worker to learn his trade. Rotation is considered a type of training--it involves moving employees through highly diversified and differentiated jobs to give them a variety of experience.
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