New Resource grain, salt, water source, animals, minerals Size Economies of Scale cultures have to change when population reaches 54
critical sizes Contact see things in another culture that look better than what you have , will adopt technologies and practices they like. War driven from homeland by hostilities, WWII millions were killed or displaced, more later Invasion stronger culture takes everything from them, including their land and homes (Romania 1300's = Dracula) Subsistence Crisis your way of making a living breaks down, Irish potato famine, natural disasters, e.g. drought, flood, earthquake, volcano Ecological Crisis your environment becomes un-livable, Chernobyl, Oklahoma dust bowl, DDT, mercury, resources depleted [ soil, trees, cod fish] housing developments built on toxic waste sites [ N.O. low income housing project ] Disease small pox destroyed Native American populations 1500 - 1900 , bubonic plague killed 1/3 of ‘modern’ world 540 AD, 1340 AD, more millions in 17 th and 18 th centuries, Spanish flu killed at least 20 million between 1914 - 1917, many tropical populations are beset with malaria, C. Africa and ebola virus, the world today and AIDS Radiation a growing culture will want to explore new territories, will move into new areas if favorable, natural universal human process Migration to Cities people around the world are moving to the cities , there is 55
money there for some , Calcutta, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro push-pull theory too many people for traditional land to support, numbers? or problems? might ‘get lucky’ in the city Migration to Industrialized Nations similar to above, home country offers nothing, maybe can make it to ‘America’, even poorest Americans are better off than poor in most countries, food, medicine, aid, jobs, etc. Diseases of Civilization neuroses, blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer [mention] white flight to countryside states. Refugees running from danger or poverty, happy to go anywhere, Korea 1950's 1960's Hong Kong 1990's Viet Nam 1970's to date Laos and Cambodia 1970's to date Mexico and C. America Caribbean USSR [ Ph.D. Physics 1996 paid $40 per month, if job ] Yugoslavia Bosnia Kosovo [ I read from pp 402 ] Turkish Christians Assyrians all of 20 th century Politics of Exclusion most countries don’t want poor immigrants, 56
Mexico vs Nicaragua, France vs Africans, Lebanon vs Palestinians, railroad Chinese became the ‘yellow peril’, U.S. vs Irish, Mex-Amer War, Haitians, Texans vs Vietnamese fishermen, based on labor needs, politics, manifest destiny, race, corporate MONEY Chain Migration one person makes it to U.S., attempts to bring in friends and family Lifeboat Mentality those who have it don’t want to share it, maybe they really can’t, U.S. ag lands disappearing, U.S. social services strained [ medicare, education, social security, food stamps, etc ], Talk about Italy, socialist democracy, lots of benefits promised, demographic shift and loose immigration is going to lead to economic collapse in the near future Applied Anthropologists 1000's of jobs now, mostly to mediate contact, Governments, Corporations, NGO’s, U.N.
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