ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Fredrik Hacklin acknowledges support from the Helsin- gin Sanomat Centennial Fund, the MTEC Foundation at ETH Zurich, the Scandinavian Consortium for Organiza- tional Research (SCANCOR) at Stanford University and swissnex San Francisco. Georg von Krogh appreciates financial support from the Swiss National Science Foun- dation (grant 100018-146439). REFERENCES 1. F. Hacklin, “Management of Convergence in Innova- tion: Strategies and Capabilities for Value Creation GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR IMPLEMENTING CONVERGENCE STRATEGIES This template highlights the key question to ask for each of the four strategic choices. The implementation principles offer a checklist of issues compa- nies should address. Examining the experiences of other companies will provide guidance on the level of resources required. Also, some strategies are more typical in early stages of industry convergence, whereas others are more typical at later stages. POSITION IN THE INDUSTRY STRATEGIC CHOICE STARTING POINT IMPLEMENTATION PRINCIPLES REQUIRED RESOURCES (LOW - HIGH) STAGE OF CONVERGENCE (EARLY - ADVANCED) COMPANY EXAMPLES Entrant Technology pioneers Can we develop supe- rior technological solutions that directly advance the convergence between industries? •Drive standards. •Become technology of choice. •Build nonexclusive licensing. Kineto, RoundBox, Thin Multimedia, Skype Market attackers Can we identify emerging revenue opportunities in converging markets where we can com- mercialize applications of advanced technologies? •Establish collabora- tive relationships. •Consolidate engagement model. •Extend partnerships. Good, Intellisync, Tellme, Spotify, Netflix Incumbent Ecosystem aggregators Can we leverage existing assets and market experience by orchestrating a platform for comple- mentary innovators? •Modularize leverage- able assets. •Ensure ecosystem coherence. •Shape appropriability mechanisms. Intel, Qualcomm, SAP , Google Business remodelers Can we anticipate the impact of convergence in our industry and design a new business model to capture emerging sources of value? •Achieve large-scale direct customer relationships. •Let old and new busi- ness models coexist. •Use indirect means to reach customers. HP, Swisscom, Apple, France Télécom, Cisco
SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU FALL 2013 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 73 Beyond Blurring Industry Boundaries” (Heidelberg, Germany: Physica/Springer, 2010); see also S. Brusoni, M.G. Jacobides and A. Prencipe, “Strategic Dynamics in Industry Architectures and the Challenges of Knowledge Integration,” European Management Review 6, no. 4 (winter 2009): 209-216; and I. Nonaka and G. von Krogh, “Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Conversion: Contro- versy and Advancement in Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory,” Organization Science 20, no. 3 (May- June 2009): 635-652. 2. “TIME” abbreviation from European Parliament, “News Report: Jobs of the Future Require Multi-Skilling,” December 1, 1998, ; also see Arthur D. Little, “Web-Reloaded? Driving Convergence in the ‘Real World,’” December 2006, .
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