39 Ibid. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 Ibid.
iv. In late October of 1918, some researchers began to argue that a virus caused influenza. Although scientists had understood that viruses could cause diseases for more than two decades, virology was still very much in its infancy at this time. 43 v. It was not until 1933 that the influenza, the virus, which causes almost every type of endemic and pandemic influenza, was isolated. Seven years later, in 1940, the influenza B virus was isolated. The influenza C virus was finally isolated in 1950. 44 vi. Influenza vaccine was first introduced as a licensed product in the United States in 1944. Because of the rapid rate of mutation of the influenza virus, the effectiveness of a given vaccine usually lasts for only a year or two. 45 vii. By the 1950s, vaccine makers were able to prepare and routinely release vaccines, which could be used in the prevention or control of future pandemics. 46 viii. During the 1960s, increased understanding of the virus enabled scientists to develop both more potent and purer vaccines. 47 D. AIDS is considered the most contemporary pandemic as it is still being experienced throughout the world with no cure or vaccine. 48 I. The biological process of how AIDS is transmitted and spread is straightforward. i. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 49 ii. HIV does not cause a specific disease, but it attacks the immune system and causes suppression, which makes the body vulnerable to other organisms that will eventually lead to death. 50 iii. Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. HIV was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid. 46 Ibid. 47 Ibid. 48 Aberth, The First Horseman: Disease in Human History , 115. 49 Aberth, The First Horseman: Disease in Human History , 115. 50 Ibid., 116.
This virus spread to humans following contact with infected chimpanzee blood during the hunting of chimpanzees. 51 iv. AIDS was first recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause, HIV infection, was identified in the early part of the decade. The spread started in 1970s when the medical community became aware. 52 v. AIDS can only be transmitted through contaminated bodily fluids, which include: blood, blood plasma, semen, vaginal excretions, and breast milk. Even though saliva and tears contain trace amounts of the HIV, the quantity is too low for effective transmission. 53 vi. Due to the means of transmission, there are few routes of entry of the virus into the body which include: blood or plasma transfusions, use of contaminated needles, open wound infection, sexual intercourse, or mother-to-child transmission. 54 vii. The targets are adults in the prime of their lives from the ages of 15 through 49. 55 II. AIDS is a disease that continues to astound medics and biological research along with society by its nature.
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- History, Bubonic Plague, Ibid