You cannot infer causation from correlation they are not the same AT ALL

# You cannot infer causation from correlation they are

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You cannot infer causation from correlation - they are not the same AT ALL Illusory/Spurious Correlation- perception of a statistical association where none exists. Crime rates and the full moon Arthritis and the weather Correlation causes causation There are 3 possible explanations: A causes B B causes A C causes both A and B 2/8 Scientific Thinking Comparison The conditions of interest Correlations only require comparison. Control The experimental condition Manipulation Of the variable you think is causing the effect Snow’s Grand Experiment Cholera outbreak A Lot of extraneous variables: living conditions, weather, disease, bad diet, stress, job hazards So he wanted to control it down with water with poop in it and water without. 2 competing water companies serving London supplying houses of people with same economic status and conditions. One was upstream, one was downstream.
S&V (downstream) had highest cholera deaths per house - poop company, treatment group Upstream company was control group Able to establish a very strong causal relationship The Experiment Manipulate the probable causal variable Independent variable (IV) Keep the other possible alternative explanations constant Extraneous or confounding variables Then, measure the variable that you think the IV is causing. Dependent variable (DV) Random Assignment Every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition. Control Groups Groups that do not undergo the manipulation of IV. Treat them exactly the same except for that manipulation. Experimental Control Experiments require creating conditions that are sometimes very unusual so that the variables that are being studied can be isolated. Limiting confounds is very important for reducing systematic error and allowing us to make causal attributions.

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• Fall '17
• CindyPury
• Causality, Correlational

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