Course Hero Logo

Other types of sugar polymers make up the stored

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 11 - 13 out of 23 pages.

Other types of sugar polymers make up the stored forms of energy known asstarchandglycogen. Starch is found in plant products such as potatoes, and glycogen isfound in animals.ProteinsProteins are another class of indispensable biomolecules, which make up around 50percent of the cellular dry weight. Proteins are comprised of the elements carbon,nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sometimes sulfur.Proteins are polymers of aminoacids, arranged in the form of chain called polypeptide.Depending on how thestructure of a protein is arranged, it gives rise to a certain level of structuralorganization.The level can be classified asprimary, secondary, tertiary andquaternary.Proteins play both structural and dynamic roles. They help form many of thestructural features of the body including hair, nails and muscles.Myosinis theprotein that allows movement by contraction of muscles Proteins are also present asa major component of cell membranes. Being part of cell membranes, proteins actas carriers or channels, facilitating the movement of ions and molecules in and outof the cells.Ions like sodium, potassium and chloride, molecules like glucose aremaintained at proper concentration for cells to function normally. Proteins also actsas catalyst. A large group of proteins, known asenzymes,enable the cells to carryout chemical reactions fast.In order for the organism to maintain growth andsurvival, the food being consumed must be converted to energy at an appreciablerate.LipidsThe termlipidrefers to a wide variety of biomolecules including fats, oils, waxes andsteroid hormones. Regardless of their structure, location or function in a cell/body,all lipids share common features that enable them to be grouped together. They donot dissolve in water; they arehydrophobic.The hydrophobic nature of the lipidsdictates many of their uses in biological systems. Lipids are composed primarily ofcarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur (lipids also contain nitrogenin some cases). Fats are a good source of stored energy while oils and waxes areused to form protective layers on our skin, preventing infection. Some lipids, thesteroid hormones, are important regulators of cell activity. The activities of steroidhormones such as estrogen have been implicated in cancers of the femalereproductive system.
8CO_Q4_Science 10_ Module 2Nucleic AcidsNucleic acid, naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being brokendown to yield phosphoric acid, sugars, and a mixture of organic bases (purines andpyrimidines). Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell,and, by directing the process of protein synthesis, they determine the inheritedcharacteristics of every living thing. These molecules are comprised of elementscarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen.The two main classes ofnucleic acids aredeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)andribonucleic acid (RNA).

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 23 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Biochemistry, DNA, Polymer, Noel Valedict R Imus

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture