d.Steps: 1)Develop a detailed understanding of a problem. 2)Identify the best modeling approach to represent the problem accurately. If a true optimization is 3)Identify attributes of the system being modeled 4)Create a mathematical representation, in a computer if necessary and possible 5)Calculate the optimum, if that sort of model is created, or use insights from the model to create improvements
Page 49 Draft 5. 5.2016 28.Nominal Group Technique a. Definition: The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is a way to assure all the capabilities of a group are fully utilized through collaboration for problem solving or brainstorming ideas. Many QI efforts require input from multiple individuals and it is important to get the contributions from each individual. Sometimes a few individuals dominate an in-person discussion and contributions from others are missed. Organizations have found NGT useful in the early stages of research to develop new ideas and directions and to enhance the capability of a group. It can be used by groups of any size to identify problems as well as to develop solutions. With the NGT individual members of a group submit their input confidentially and individually in writing. The results are tabulated and a summary of the inputs, such as which idea was mentioned most frequently, is reported back to the group. The individual response and summarization cycle can be repeated so as to reach a consensus. An open group discussion can follow as well. The intent is to allow all individuals to provide their opinion equally and have it received and distributed. NGT is similar to the Delphi Method which was developed for forecasting using experts participating anonymously over multiple rounds to develop a consensus. b. Literature: Allen, Jane, Jane Dyas, and Margaret Jones. "Building consensus in health care: a guide to using the nominal group technique." British Journal of Community Nursing 9.3 (2004): 110-114. Gallagher, Morris, et al. "The nominal group technique: a research tool for general practice?" Family Practice 10.1 (1993): 76-81. Van de Ven, Andrew H., and Andre L. Delbecq. "The effectiveness of nominal, Delphi, and
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