Managers try to design jobs to motivate employees to

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- managers try to design jobs to motivate employees to perform well, enjoy their work, and receive the outcomes they deserve. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: A set of principles and practices designed to increase the performance of individual employees by stressing job simplification and specialization. - Scientific management has been instrumental in helping organizations improve employee effectiveness and productivity. The early assembly lines that made the mass production of affordable automobiles possible reflected scientific management principles. - extrinsically motivated behavior is behavior performed to acquire rewards (such as pay) or to avoid punishment, and intrinsically motivated behavior is behavior per formed for its own sake. Employees who are intrinsically motivated enjoy performing their jobs; the motivation comes from the work itself. However, scientific management focuses exclusively on extrinsic motivation and ignores the important role of intrinsic motivation.
This narrow focus results in several disadvantages for employees and the organizations trying to motivate them. JOB SIMPLIFICATION : The breaking up of the work that needs to be performed in an organization into the smallest identifiable tasks. JOB SPECIALIZATION: The assignment of employees to perform small, simple tasks. TIME AND MOTION STUDIES : Studies that reveal exactly how long it takes to perform a task and the best way to perform it. JOB ENLARGEMENT: Increasing the number of tasks an employee performs but keeping all of the tasks at the same level of difficulty and responsibility; also called horizontal job loading. - Proponents of job enlargement thought that increasing the number of tasks performed on a job might increase intrinsic motivation. JOB ENRICHMENT: Increasing an employee’s responsibility and control over his or her work; also called vertical job loading because employees are given some of the responsibilities that used to belong to their supervisors - involves designing jobs to provide opportunities for employee growth by giving employees more responsibility and control over their work. - Like job enlargement, job enrichment is aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation so that employees enjoy their jobs more → Research evidence on the effects of job enrichment has been mixed. Although employees seem to be more satisfied with enriched jobs, it is not clear whether employees with enriched jobs are actually more motivated and perform at higher levels. Herzberg’s theory suggested that employees’ motivator needs are satisfied by things such as having autonomy on the job and being responsible for one’s work, and that employees are satisfied with their jobs only when these needs are met. Managers can enrich jobs in a variety of ways. The following are some of the most common: - Allow employees to plan their own work schedules.

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