With nk military anti communist under command of

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with NK military (anti-communist) under command of Major Gen. PCH occupied government offices and pronounced another revolution that emphasized first and foremost the need for anti-communist vigilanceRepresent the third “revolution” in thirteen months, and another shift in the long historical arch of struggle between students and dictatorships in SKLargely welcomed by a populace exhausted by political chaosPCH set up Supreme National Reconstruction Committee (SNRC), set in motion the mobilization of society along militaristically disciplined linesoEspousing (choose, follow) corruption reformoStrengthening of the militaryoAnti-communist stance (because US was very anti-communist)Crated Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) to prevent a counter coup and to suppress all potential enemies, domestic and internationalChaebŏlBiggest beneficiaries of state-led, export-oriented industrialization drive (PCH)Family-owned conglomerate companies, large diversified companiesGovernment selected well-performing companies for targeted export-oriented production, rewarding them with cheap and big loans, government guidance, etc.oResult: astonishing growth of many of these companies into “octopus” – like entities that came to dominate SK economy (even today)E.g. Hyundai – begun by Chung Ju Yung as a transport service supply American military (foreign) infrastructural projects (at home) produce and export cars expanded into shipbuilding (became global leaders), and more1965 ROK – Japan Normalization TreatyReestablished normal diplomatic and economic relations between Japan and ROKPCH considered it a cornerstone of his plan to modernize the economy (capital investment and technology transfer from Japan)oEnabled PCH to develop chaebol, POSCO (industry)Japan gave money to Korea for compensation during colonizationoReparations of unaddressed issues (e.g. comfort women)PCH not anti-Japanese + prodded by US for East Asian Security NetworkCompelled the mass resignation of opposition politicians and the eruption of more student protests, which the government suppressed through a military occupation of college campusesYusin (Yushin) Constitution (1972) – “Revitalization” constitutionOfficial constitution of SK 4thRepublic (dictatorship) under Pres. PCH (self coup)Result of almost losing presidential election to KDJGranted enormous powers to presidentoElected for six years with no limits on reelectionoCandidacy requirements so stringent only one candidate can be on ballotoMore executive powers: PCH gained power to appoint a large portion of National Assembly, effectively guaranteeing a parliamentary majorityIn effect, converted PCH’s presidency into a legal dictatorship (president for life)
Official justification for the big push to heavy industry and ramping up economyYusin came to an end with that of PCH’s own life. By then the Yusin system had intensified the autocratic political approach to the 1960s and extended it to

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