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After seth gives the struggling runner a glucose

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After Seth gives the struggling runner a glucose tablet and an energy bar, whichhormone is likely being released into the runner’s bloodstream?GlucagonInsulinCorrect! The ingested glucose tablet and energy bar prompt the runner's bodyto produce insulin.Aerobic metabolism-in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with theorganic fuel (aerobicis from the Greekaer, air, andbios, life). The cells of mosteukaryotic and many prokaryotic organisms can carry out aerobic respiration. Someprokaryotes use substances other than oxygen as reactants in a similar process that
harvests chemical energy without oxygen; this process is calledanaerobicrespiration(the prefixan- means “without”).To make ATP.Cellular respiration-includes both aerobic and anaerobic processes. However, itoriginated as a synonym for aerobic respiration because of the relationship of thatprocess to organismal respiration, in which an animal breathes in oxygen.Glycolysis-occurs in the cytosol, begins the degradation process by breaking glucoseinto two molecules of a compound called pyruvate. In eukaryotes, pyruvate entersthe mitochondrion and is oxidized to a compound called acetyl CoA, which entersthecitric acid cycle.A series of reactions that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis occurs inalmost all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration.Thewordglycolysismeans “sugar splitting,” and that is exactly what happens duringthis pathway. Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, is split into two three-carbon sugars.These smaller sugars are then oxidized and their remaining atoms rearranged toform two molecules of pyruvate. (Pyruvate is the ionized form of pyruvic acid.)Citric acid cycle-the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide is completed. (Inprokaryotes, these processes take place in the cytosol.A chemical cycle involvingeight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun inglycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA (derived from pyruvate) to carbon dioxide; occurs withinthe mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes; together withpyruvate oxidation, the second major stage in cellular respiration.Electron transport chain (ETC)-consists of a number of molecules, mostly proteins,built into the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells (and theplasma membrane of respiring prokaryotes). Electrons removed from glucose areshuttled by NADH to the “top,” higher-energy end of the chain. At the “bottom,”lower-energy end,O2O2captures these electrons along with hydrogen nuclei(H+)(H+), forming water. (Anaerobically respiring prokaryotes have an electron acceptorat the end of the chain that is different fromO2O2.)( a series of redox reactionsthat release energy used to make ATP.

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