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Queen Elizabeth I exercised great personal power and was immensely popular with her people. Her cousin that succeeded her, James I(r. 1603-1625) was not interested in displaying the majesty of the monarchy. His problem was that a monarch has a divine right from his authority and is responsible only to God. He lectured the House of Commons on the subject. His son, Charles I(1625-1649) saw the house of Commons as a threat to their divine-right prerogative. After the Thirty years’ war, he refused to summon Parliament. ○People were beginning to feel dissatisfied with the Church of English and Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church of lingering Roman Catholic elements. Charles I was like no thanks and married a catholic princess. ○In Scotland, Canterbury WIlliam Laud (1573-1645) was trying to impose a new prayer book and bishoprics onto Scotland, but because the Scots were Presbyterian, they refused and began to revolt. Charles was forced to call a meeting of Parliament in November 1640 ○From 1629-1640. Charles ruled without parliament and financed his government through levies that were illegal by most English people. He revived medieval laws to get money. When Irish revolted, Charles left London to the north and created an army of nobility and cavalry, where the Parliament did the same and both sides prepared for war. English Civil War(1642-1649)pitted the king against the Parliament and the Parliament defeated the King’s army, but Charles refused to see it. They waited and arrived at the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, capturing the king and put him on trial where he is later killed. ○Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679) held a pessimistic view of humans and believed that humans would compete violently for power and wealth, written in his book, Leviathan. He saw the monarchy as something that held the body of the nation together. This was not a shared view of those in England. ○Oliver Cromwell created Protectorate, the english military dictatorship, as a republican government, creating a constitution and gave Parliament the ability to raise taxes. He dismissed Parliament in 1655 after some disputes and dever really endorsed the constitution in that sense. He favored some religious toleration as he gave all but Roman Catholics the right to practice their faith. He sent his troops to Ireland to reconquer the country in August 1649, but they were crushed and as he departed back to England, everything worsened. He banned Catholicism in Ireland and these brutal acts left a legacy of hatred of Irish for England. ■He adopted mercantilist policies that required English goods to be transported on English ships to threaten the Dutch power. He enforced the Navigation Act (1651) to boost commerce, but while that happened the harsh conditions of the people continued. ■His son succeeded him, but he was a loser so by 1660 the people wanted their monarchy back ○Charles II(r. 1660-1685) was brought back to the throne and put both houses of Parliament back together.