designed to finance members’ personal drug use3.Serious delinquent gang – involves serious delinquent behavior while avoiding drug dealing and usage4
4.Organized gang – heavily involved in criminality; on the verge of becoming a formal criminal organization5.c.Not only are there different types of gangs, there may be different roles played by gang boys within each type5.d.The format and structure of gangs may be changing; they are now commonly described as having a “hybrid gang culture,” meaning they do not follow a single code of rules or method of operation5.e.Today’s gangs have several common characteristics:1.a mixture of racial/ethnic groups2.a mixture of symbols and graffiti associated with different gangs3.wearing colors traditionally associated with a rival gang4.less concern over turn or territory5.members who sometimes switch from one gang to another6.Cohesiona.The standard definition of a gang implies that it is a cohesive groupb.However, some experts refer to gangs as near-groups; which have limited cohesion, impermanence, minimal consensus of norms, shifting membership, disturbed leadership, and limited definitions of membership expectations7.Agea.The ages of gang members range widely, perhaps from as young as eight to as old as fifty-fiveb.Research indicates that youths first hear about gangs at around nine years of age, get involved in violence at ten or eleven, and join their first gang at twelvec.Gang experts believe the average age of gang members has been increasing yearly, a phenomenon explained in part by the changing structure of the U.S. economyd.Why are Gang Members Aging?1.Gang members are getting older and the majority of them are now legal adults2.Wilson found that the inability of inner-city males to obtain adequate jobs means that they cannot afford to marry and raise families8.Gendera.Traditionally, gangs were considered a male-dominated enterpriseb.Of the more than a thousand groups included in Thrasher’s original survey, only half a dozen were female gangsc.Females were involved in gangs in three ways: as auxiliaries (or branches) of male gangs, as part of sexually mixed gangs, or as 5
autonomous gangsd.Auxiliaries are a feminized version of the male gang namee.Today some locales report that females make up almost half of all gang members; however national data indicate than 10 percent of gang members are femalesf.Girls in the Gangi.There are a variety of reasons why girls join gangs, including financial opportunity, identity and status, peer pressure, family dysfunction, and protectionii.According to the “liberation” view, ganging can provide girls with a sense of sisterhood, independence, and solidarity, as well as a chance to earn profit through illegal activitiesiii.The “social injury” view suggest that female members are still sexually exploited by male gang members and are sometimes forced to exploit other femalesiv.However, research indicates that female gang membership
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 14 pages?
- Fall '13
- Criminal Justice, Gang, gang members, National Gang Center, National Youth Gang