Hybrid and semi authoritarian regimes a class of

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Hybrid and Semi-Authoritarian Regimes A class of regime that is neither fully democratic nor fully authoritarian Various forms and concepts: Illiberal democracy : a polity with some democratic features but in which political and civil rights are not all guaranteed or protected Delegative democracy : a hybrid form of regime that is democratic but involves the electorate delegating significant authority to a government Electoral authoritarianism : a name applied to situations in which authoritarian regimes nominally compete in elections Competitive authoritarianism : a form of government or regime that allows some political competition but not enough for it to qualify as fully democratic
Types of Transition (or Nontransition) to Authoritarianism Many forms of regime change can end in authoritarianism: Replacement of one form of authoritarian regime with another Democratic breakdown Transitions to hybrid regimes
Authoritarian Persistence One authoritarian regime remains in power Transition from one authoritarian regime to another
Democratic Breakdown Several patterns of democratic decay and collapse are worth special attention: Democratic regimes sometimes collapse because voters elect authoritarians Democratic regimes sometimes collapse because organized actors in society move against them Sometimes regime change takes the form of revolution
Transition to Hybrid/ Semi-Authoritarian Regime From one regime to an “in-between” regime Partial democratic breakdown can lead a formerly democratic polity to fall into semi-authoritarian status A traditionally authoritarian regime can enter into the same hybrid status as a result of partial and limited democratization
What Causes Authoritarian Regimes to Emerge and Persist? Historical Institutionalist Theories Poverty and Inequality State Weakness and Failure Political Culture Theories of Authoritarian Persistence Barriers to Collective Action Special Causal Circumstances Surrounding Hybrid Regimes and Semi-Authoritarian Regimes
Historical Institutionalist Theories Theory: Coalitions among groups or classes shape fates of regimes, and institutions give these coalitions enduring effects When actors combine forces, they may get the regime that benefits them Important actors may include: Social classes Economic interests (landowners, industrialists) Working class and peasants Military
Poverty and Inequality Theory: high levels of poverty or inequality lead to more authoritarianism Poverty leads populace to greater concern with economic issues than political liberties Inequality leads to mistrust between groups Wealthy interests and reactionary authoritarians may defend privilege Poor masses and radical authoritarians may favour populism and redistribution
State Weakness and Failure Theory: States with weak institutions are likelier to have authoritarian regimes Weak institutions often result in more “predatory” states

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