PS 101 B1 Final Study Guide

Thomas and chesss theory of temperament gender

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Thomas and Chess’s theory of temperament Gender identity Sensation and Perception Structure of the eye Structure of the ear Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic Theory: 3 colors are red, blue, and green Opponent Process Theory: we see colors as opposite pairs Temporal Theory/Frequency Theory of Pitch Place Theory of Pitch Discrimination: we can differentiate between pitches because of where they vibrate against the Cochlea Gestalt principles of perceptual organization Monocular: one eye; depth perception Binocular cues: two eyes Optical illusions Absolute threshold: lowest point at which we can sense a physical stimulus 50% of the time Difference threshold: JND; point at which is needed to notice a difference. Signal detection: Weber Fechner’s Law: Steven’s Law Perception: interpreting sensations Sleep, Dreaming, Consciousness Consciousness Unconscious Dissociative Identity Disorder 2
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Theories of Sleep Sleep disorders Insomnia: have trouble falling and staying asleep Narcolepsy: fall asleep anywhere Sleep apnea: can’t breath when sleeping Sleep terror: horrible nightmares Sleep paralysis: can’t move Stages of sleep Stage 1: eye movement slows Stage 2: sleep spindles Stage 3: eye movements minimal; breathing slows Stage 4: deepest sleep REM: rapid eye movement; dreams REM vs. NREM sleep Hypnosis Learning and Behavior Habituation Classical conditioning: neutral stimulus when paired with an UCS elicits and UCR, which eventually turns into a CR to the now CS. Operant conditioning: BF Skinner: how ones behavior effects the result Reinforcement vs. Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement Partial, Continuous, Interval Reinforcement vs. Punishment Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits and unlearned response. Unconditioned response: response to the UCS; unlearned behavior Conditioned stimulus: stimulus elicits a learned response Conditioned response: learned response Generalization: all things in same category of stimulus elicits the CR Discrimination: only the exact Stimulus elicits that specific response Extinction: no longer have a CR to the CS Spontaneous Recovery: reoccurance of CR after extinction Memory Three memory processes- encoding, storage, retrieval Sensory memory: only a few seconds, imprinting images Working memory: Long-term memory: store in memory for retrieval later; can never have too much information Implicit vs. explicit memory Chunking: putting things together to make it easier to remember Primacy and recency effects Long term memory forgetting curve: what you will forget over time due to environmental factors Recall: ability to reproduce something that you have learned Recognition: ablity to recognize something and form a solution based on memory 3
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False memories: memory of something that did not occur Proactive: difficulty remembering new info vs. retroactive interference: difficulty recalling old
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