PrisoninEuropeOverviewandtrends.pdf

The figures related to scotland and northern ireland

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suicides is 58 in England and Wales (suicides within prison walls and in outside hospitals). The figures related to Scotland and Northern Ireland were not yet available at the time of writing, as they were subject to the outcome of fatal accident inquiries in Scotland while they were still subject to Coroner's inquests to ascertain the cause of death in Northern Ireland). As for deaths and suicides of juvenile prisoners, in some countries the data are not available (Greece, Portugal and Spain). In France, Italy and Latvia there weren't deaths and suicides of juvenile prisoners in 2012. In Poland between 2008 and 2010 there were no deaths in penal institutions for juveniles, while in 2011 and 2012 one death per year occurred. In 2012 there were no suicides in penal institutions for juveniles. Since 2009 two suicides have occurred. In both cases the information necessary to determine if the data include prisoners who died outside the prison is not available. Finally, in the UK the total number of deaths in prison in 2012 is 5 - all suicides in England and Wales (the figure relates to deaths of serving prisoners whether within prison walls or in outside hospitals).
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European Prison Observatory Prison in Europe: overview and trends 20 As we can see, it is not always possible to specify if the data related to deaths include only the inmates who died inside the prisons or if they also include those who died outside the prisons (for example, in ambulances, in hospitals etc.). All the issues mentioned above are some good reasons to understand why monitoring the health safeguard in prison is a key issue. As for the organisation of prison health care, European Prison Rules order that “medical services in prison shall be organised in close relationship with the general health administration of the community or nation” (40.2) and “health policy in prison shall be integrated into, and compatible with, national health policy” (40.3). International pressure towards reform is demonstrated also by the World Health Organisation, which strongly recommend that closer links be made between prison and public healthcare (Hayton, Gatherer and Fraser, 2010). The common objective is to make prison health services as similar as possible to the external ones, following article 40.3 of the European Prison Rules (“Prisoners shall have access to the health services available in the country without discrimination on the grounds of their legal situation”), which has been reaffirmed by the Health 2020 program (Kickbusch and Behrendt, 2013; WHO, 2013). Analysing the national reports, we notice that, from a legal point of view, only in France, UK and Italy is the responsibility to deliver health care in prison managed by the Ministry of Health, as it is in the rest of society. In the other countries, prison medical services belong to the prison administration structure.
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