In fact, if one billion (10
9
)
planets the size of the earth were covered eyeball-
to-eyeball and elbow-to-elbow with monkeys, and each monkey was seated
at a typewriter (requiring about 10 square feet for each monkey, of the
approximately 10
16
square feet available on each of the 10
9
planets), and
each monkey typed a string of 100
letters every second for five billion years
(about 10
17
seconds) the chances are overwhelming that not one of these
monkeys would have typed the sentence correctly! Only 10
41
tries could be
made by all these monkeys in that five billion years (10
9
x 10
16
x 10
17
divided
by 10 = 10
41
). There would not be the slightest chance that a single one of
the 10
24
monkeys (a trillion trillion monkeys) would have typed a preselected
sentence of 100 letters (such as "The subject of this
Impact
article is the
naturalistic origin of life on the earth under assumed primordial conditions")
without a spelling error, even once.
The number of tries possible (10
41
) is such a minute fraction of the total
number of possibilities (10
130
), that the probability that one of the monkeys
would have typed the correct sentence is less than the impossibility
threshold. The degree of difference between these two numbers is
enormous, and may be illustrated by the fact that 10
41
times a trillion(10
12
) is
still only 10
53
, and 10
53
times a trillion is only 10
65
, 10
65
times a trillion is only

10
77
, etc. In fact, 10
41
would have to be multiplied by a trillion more than
seven times to equal 10
130
. Even after 10
41
tries had been made, there would
still be much, much more than 10
129
arrangements that hadn't yet been tried
(10
41
is such an insignificantly small number compared to 10
130
that
10
130
10
41
is about equal to 10
130
minus zero!).
Considering an enzyme, then, of 100 amino acids, there would be no
possibility whatever that a single molecule could ever have arisen by pure
chance on the earth in five billion years. But if by some miracle it did happen
once, only a single molecule would have been produced, yet billions of tons
of each of many different protein, DNA, and RNA molecules would have to be
produced. The probability of this happening, of course, is absolutely nil. It
must be concluded, therefore, that a naturalistic origin of the many
biologically active molecules required for the most primitive organism
imaginable would have been impossible.
Origin of Stable, Complex, Biologically Active Systems
The problem of explaining the manner in which the above macromolecules
became associated into systems that would have had even the most
rudimentary ability to function as metabolically active systems capable of
assuring their own maintenance, reproduction, and diversification is
tremendously more complex and difficult than any attempts to explain the
origin of the macromolecules themselves. Green and Goldberger have
stated, " ... the macromolecule-to-cell transition is a jump of fantastic
dimensions, which lies beyond the range of testable hypothesis. In this area
all is conjecture. The available facts do not provide a basis for postulating
that cells arose on this planet."