# In fact if one billion 10 9 planets the size of the

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In fact, if one billion (10 9 ) planets the size of the earth were covered eyeball- to-eyeball and elbow-to-elbow with monkeys, and each monkey was seated at a typewriter (requiring about 10 square feet for each monkey, of the approximately 10 16 square feet available on each of the 10 9 planets), and each monkey typed a string of 100 letters every second for five billion years (about 10 17 seconds) the chances are overwhelming that not one of these monkeys would have typed the sentence correctly! Only 10 41 tries could be made by all these monkeys in that five billion years (10 9 x 10 16 x 10 17 divided by 10 = 10 41 ). There would not be the slightest chance that a single one of the 10 24 monkeys (a trillion trillion monkeys) would have typed a preselected sentence of 100 letters (such as "The subject of this Impact article is the naturalistic origin of life on the earth under assumed primordial conditions") without a spelling error, even once. The number of tries possible (10 41 ) is such a minute fraction of the total number of possibilities (10 130 ), that the probability that one of the monkeys would have typed the correct sentence is less than the impossibility threshold. The degree of difference between these two numbers is enormous, and may be illustrated by the fact that 10 41 times a trillion(10 12 ) is still only 10 53 , and 10 53 times a trillion is only 10 65 , 10 65 times a trillion is only
10 77 , etc. In fact, 10 41 would have to be multiplied by a trillion more than seven times to equal 10 130 . Even after 10 41 tries had been made, there would still be much, much more than 10 129 arrangements that hadn't yet been tried (10 41 is such an insignificantly small number compared to 10 130 that 10 130 10 41 is about equal to 10 130 minus zero!). Considering an enzyme, then, of 100 amino acids, there would be no possibility whatever that a single molecule could ever have arisen by pure chance on the earth in five billion years. But if by some miracle it did happen once, only a single molecule would have been produced, yet billions of tons of each of many different protein, DNA, and RNA molecules would have to be produced. The probability of this happening, of course, is absolutely nil. It must be concluded, therefore, that a naturalistic origin of the many biologically active molecules required for the most primitive organism imaginable would have been impossible. Origin of Stable, Complex, Biologically Active Systems The problem of explaining the manner in which the above macromolecules became associated into systems that would have had even the most rudimentary ability to function as metabolically active systems capable of assuring their own maintenance, reproduction, and diversification is tremendously more complex and difficult than any attempts to explain the origin of the macromolecules themselves. Green and Goldberger have stated, " ... the macromolecule-to-cell transition is a jump of fantastic dimensions, which lies beyond the range of testable hypothesis. In this area all is conjecture. The available facts do not provide a basis for postulating that cells arose on this planet."