1. Neuromotor Impairments: Neuromotor impairments are those that affect the brain and spinal cord either from damage or birth abnormalities. “These motor problems can include limited limb movement, loss of urinary control, and loss of proper alignment of the spine.” (Project IDEAL, 2013) Most people with neuromotor impairments have cerebral palsy or spina bifida. 2. Degenerative Diseases: Degenerative diseases are orthopedic impairments that affect the motor development. These diseases are often inherited diseases. The most common degenerative disease is muscular dystrophy. 3. Musculoskeletal Disorders: Musculoskeletal disorders are impairments that affect the student’s physical abilities. These disorders cause pain to the ligaments, muscles, nerves, and joints often through inflammation. Common types of musculoskeletal disorders are rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia. Causes of Orthopedic Impairments: Orthopedic Impairments can be a disability that a child is born with, a disease that becomes evident in a child after birth, or a disability that is caused by trauma.
EXCEPTIONALITY WIKI 15 Cerebral palsy and spina bifida are two such diseases that are classified as orthopedic impairments. A common orthopedic impairment that can manifest in children later in life is juvenile arthritis. Children with loss of a limb due to paralysis or amputation would also be classified as children with orthopedic impairments. Identification Process of Orthopedic Impairments: “The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines an orthopedic impairment as one that severely and adversely affects a child’s school performance .” (Odle, 2009) A doctor must diagnose a student with an orthopedic impairment and often this diagnosis is done before a child enters school. A doctor will evaluate a child based on physical ability, and mental function then makes the referrals for additional services if needed. These services can include special education support in the school system if the disability adversely affects the child’s education. (Odle, 2009) A child that shows a lack of coordination and mobility or complains of chronic pain may have been missed in being diagnosed for an orthopedic impairment. If a teacher has a suspicion that something may be going on, they should refer the student for evaluation. Prevalence of Orthopedic Impairments: Orthopedic impairments account for a low percentage of special education services. In the 2012-2013 school year, there were approximately 6.5 million students receiving special education services. This is about 13% of the total public school population. The percent of distribution for students with orthopedic impairments as
EXCEPTIONALITY WIKI 16 serviced through IDEA was approximately 1%. These statistics account for children ranging in age from 3-26. Learning Characteristics of Students with Orthopedic Impairments: Learning characteristics among people with orthopedic impairments are different from person to person and depend upon the degree of impairment. Other than the neuromotor classification, it is not uncommon for students with orthopedic impairments to suffer no intellectual difficulties.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 30 pages?
- Fall '16
- ANA PANEDA
- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Multiple Disabilities