Jennifer baumgardner recognizes fourth wave feminism

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movement. Jennifer Baumgardner recognizes fourth-wave feminism as opening in 2008 and continuing up to the contemporary era. It is stated, that Fourth-wave feminism is a movement that is connected through technology. Whereas, Researcher Diana Diamond defines fourth-wave feminism as: a movement that combines politics , psychology , and spirituality in an overarching vision of change. (Diamond, 213-223) Kira describes fourth wave feminism as: the fourth wave focuses on inequality manifesting in "street harassment, sexual harassment, workplace t discrimination[,] ... body-shaming", media images, "online misogyny", "assault[s] on public transport", and intersectionality , relying on social media technology for communication and online petitioning for organizing, and sharing with prior waves a perception that individual experiences are shared and thus can have political solutions. (Kira, 166) Black Feminism and Black Feminist Writing: Black Women in the United States have always been keenly aware of the impact of race, class, and gender oppression upon their lives. They attempted to abolish various forms of injustices that they and their communities face. The term Black feminism was not extensively used until the beginning of the contemporary Black women's movement in the 1970s. However, Black feminists scholars frequently use the term to a variety of Black women's survival tactics and actions in the past. It is used to characterize Black women's bravery, independence, and practicality under the vicious conditions of slavery and institutionalized racism. In fact, Black feminism has been used to describe political theory and practice that clearly highlights gender and sexual oppression in Black women's lives.
63 American feminism focuses upon the racism, sexism, class oppression, and homophobia that affect Black and other women of color. Black women’s issues such as lynching or sterilization abuse, cannot be ascribed to gender discrimination. Issues that affect all women, such as battering, are formed by racial identity, societal status, and sexual orientation as well as by gender. African-American women started expressing their concern publicly about their position as women in the nineteenth century. In the early 19 th century, most Black women were imprisoned, but free Black women contributed themselves in the abolitionist cause. Writers and activists like Maria Stewart, Sojourner Truth and Frances E. W. Harper voiced about Black women's rights. Sojourner Truth was leading activist in the women's rights movement, and her 1851 "Ain't I a Woman" speech portrays gender oppression which, has exceptional consequences for Black women living under a racist, economically oppressive system. By the end of the nineteenth century, Black women had created their own groups. These groups supported women suffrage but preferred a range of social and political issues that affected Black communities as well as Black women specifically.

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