O ex scale off by 10 pounds not valid but if reads 10

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o Ex. Scale off by 10 pounds, not valid.. but if reads 10 pounds exactly less then true weight when every time stepped on, scale is reliable. o Ex 2. Clock fast 5 mins. reliable but not valid. o Ex 3. One day give self 10/10 for life satisfaction (b/c found $10) then another day 7/10 for life satisfaction- measure of question is valid but not reliable. Generalizability: the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied Role of Researcher “White Coat ” effects: effects that researchers have on the very processes and relationships they are studying by virtue of being there. Subjects changing behaviour consciously or not b/c part of study o Ex. Teacher teaching better when being observed by observer (maybe principal?) Reflexivity: analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and affect on, our research o Being aware of white coat effects you may be inspiring o Shown in qualitative field work such as interviews, ethnography, participant observation.
Ex. Urban ethnographer Mitchell Duneier spent 5 years alongside booksellers on sidewalks of 6 th Ave. in Manhattan. Purpose is to understand how these street vendors and group of friends (many homeless) function in community. He became friends with him during research and with huge amounts of effort, made sure to show research before publishing to the people involved. Believed that they deserved to know and hear in advance before publishing. o In qualitative research, may find ourselves in situations where have to choose whether objectivity and distance is more imp. than standing for what we believe is right. Have to take a step back and think about own role as both researcher and participant B/c our perception and experience of events eventually becomes data from which we make our claims. o Ethnographer’s (and any other scientists) responsibility to readers – make data collection methods public Population: an entire group of individual persons, objects, or items from which samples may be drawn Sample: the subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data. o Case studies disadvantage is that it has a low generalizability (sample not generalizable to whole population) but advantage is that depth (detailed information) is high. In the eyes of the researcher, we’re not all equal o Put aside personal biases, strive for neutrality and remain impartial and objective. o Historically, sociology has been male dominated o Following feminist movement in late 1960’s, concept of feminist methodology was born. Feminist Methodology- a set of systems or methods that treat women’s experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources, that promote social science for women (think public sociology but for a specific half of the public), and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter.

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